# 0.1 Relative atomic masses and empirical formulae  (Page 4/5)

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What if nitrogen were actually ${N}_{4}$ ? Then the first oxide would be ${N}_{2}O$ , the second would be ${N}_{2}{O}_{2}$ , and the third would be ${N}_{4}O$ . Furthermore, the mass of a nitrogen atom would be 7. Why don't we assume this? Simply because in doing so, we willalways find that the minimum relative mass of nitrogen in any molecule is 14. Although this might be two nitrogen atoms, there isno reason to believe that it is. Therefore, a single nitrogen atom weighs 14, and nitrogen gas particles are ${N}_{2}$ .

## Determination of atomic weights for non-gaseous elements

We can proceed with this type of measurement, deduction, and prediction for any compound which is a gas and whichis made up of elements which are gases. But this will not help us with the atomic masses of non-gaseous elements, nor will it permitus to determine the molecular formulae for compounds which contain these elements.

Consider carbon, an important example. There are two oxides of carbon. Oxide A has oxygen to carbon mass ratio1.33 : 1 and oxide B has mass ratio 2.66 : 1. Measurement of reacting volumes shows that we find that 1 liter of oxide A isproduced from 0.5 liters of oxygen. Hence, each molecule of oxide A contains only half as many oxygen atoms as does an oxygen molecule.Oxide A thus contains one oxygen atom. But how many carbon atoms does it contain? We can't determine this yet because theelemental carbon is solid, not gas. This means that we also cannot determine what the mass of a carbon atom is.

But we can try a different approach: we weigh 1 liter of oxide A and 1 liter of oxygen gas. The result we find isthat oxide A weighs 0.875 times per liter as much as oxygen gas. Since we have assumed that a fixed volume of gas contains a fixednumber of particles, then 1 liter of oxide A contains just as many particles as 1 liter of oxygen gas. Therefore, each particle of oxide A weighs 0.875 times as much as a particle of oxygen gas(that is, an ${O}_{2}$ molecule). Since an ${O}_{2}$ molecule weighs 32 on our atomic mass scale, then a particle of oxide A weighs $0.875×32=28$ . Now we know the molecular weight of oxide A.

Furthermore, we have already determined from the combining volumes that oxide A contains a single oxygen atom,of mass 16. Therefore, the mass of carbon in oxide A is 12. However, at this point, we do not know whether this is one carbonatom of mass 12, two atoms of mass 6, eight atoms of mass 1.5, or one of many other possibilities.

To make further progress, we make additional measurements on other carbon containing gas compounds. 1 liter ofoxide B of carbon is formed from 1 liter of oxygen. Therefore, each oxide B molecule contains two oxygen atoms. 1 liter of oxide Bweighs 1.375 times as much as 1 liter of oxygen. Therefore, one oxide B molecule has mass $1.375×32=44$ . Since there are two oxygen atoms in a molecule of oxide B, the mass of oxygen inoxide B is 32. Therefore, the mass of carbon in oxide B is 12, the same as in oxide A.

We can repeat this process for many such gaseous compounds containing carbon atoms. In each case, we findthat the mass of carbon in each molecule is either 12 or a multiple of 12. We never find, for examples, 6 or 18, which would bepossible if each carbon atom had mass 6. The simplest conclusion is that a carbon atom has mass 12. Once we know the atomic mass ofcarbon, we can conclude that the molecular formula of oxide A is $CO$ , and that of oxide B is $C{O}_{2}$ .

what is the law of equilibrium.
The law of equilibrium states that when the demand of a commodity is equal to the supply
Stanley
The difference between cyclical unemployment and structural unemployment
Cyclical unemployment .it has to do with an increase in the quantity of good demanded or there is over production which result in fall in prices. Industries will be affected it will now causes retrenchment of workers in the industries while structural unemployment arises as a result of slight change
In the industrial structure of a countries workers wil now be retren
Will now be retrenched as a result of economic recession... That is the little i knw....
what is the condition of a consumer behaviour in the equilibrium under the theory of consumer behaviour
what is equilibrium
Sahr
A point where quantity demand & supply meets called equilibrium
Hasham
a state is said to be equilibrium when there is no tendency of movement.
Nibedita
Pls @Nibedita am confused
Prince
The state of balance achieved by an end user of products that refers to the amount of goods and services they can purchase given their present level of income and the current level of prices. Consumer equilibrium allows a consumer to obtain the most satisfaction possible from their income.
Okwori
where is the calculations?
what are the two conditions for aconsumer to be in the equilibrium under the theory of consumer behaviour in
Sahr
Economic equilibrium is a condition or state in which economic forces are balanced. In effect, economic variables remain unchanged from their equilibrium values in the absence of external influences. Economic equilibrium may also be defined as the point at which supply equals demand for a product,
vinay
Hello there, let's make a time to chat about econimics and its issues.
it's true
hie Sir /Madam l need help when it comes to Economics lm doing it for the first time
Thembelani
So, share your problems that you have in terms of economis and we will discuss on it.
DA
Basic Economic problems
Thembelani
what is the Basic Economic problem
Thembelani
what is the Basic Economic problem
scarcity
Rhaiymornd
a bit of explanation please its my first year doing Economics
Thembelani
rare, limited. economic agents eg You dube, the govt & the business entities wants to maximise their utility/satisfaction but because limited resource or scarcity of such resources they are unable to satisfy their needs.
ian
thank u Sir , l understand what you are saying now
Thembelani
limited resources; you wanna take the most benefits from the minimum resource.
DA
if u ar a fresher, eco has to 2 fundamental parts "micro & macro". micro(small) this is were the economc agents ar discussd, economc systms, dmand & supply, typs of market systms etc and the macro (big) part the elucidates the functns of central bank, typs of employmnt, functns of money & int trade.
ian
there is an old adage that says "a picture is worth a thousand words" economics is full of graphing so it requires on the side of the student to master the art of keeping information in form graphs.
ian
oky Sir
Thembelani
scarcity becomes the fundamental problem of economics because of limited resources, when we take an individual, he or she has many wants, thus unlimited wants but can never satisfy all but only few.
Rhaiymornd
now when we take a firm, a firm maybe willing to produce two or more product into the market but due to limited resources they only produce one. the same way if we take the government, he or she maybe willing to bring development either through infrastructures,
Rhaiymornd
that is when consumer decision making rule comes in
Olusegun
choice arises as a result of scarcity of resources
Olusegun
so if we look through, the individual, firm and government, their wants are unlimited but due limited resources, all of their wants cannot be satisfy. therefore scarcity can be term as limited in supply of resources. scarcity is not lack of resources but insufficient resources
Rhaiymornd
there is a marriage with the following; scarcity, factors of production, opportunity cost curve (occ) or (ppc, ppf, tc) production possibility curve productn possibility frontier transformation curve. The OCC, PPC, PPF & TC explains the decisions made by householders, firms & the govt.
ian
opportunity cost also arises as a result of firm willing to produce a particular commodity but resources use in satisfying or producing such output is limited
Olusegun
wat ar those decisions? the most important is WHY nations economise tht is if they hav abundancy of factors of productn eg land, labour & entreprise? now since all of us have unlimited needs against few resourcs PPC, PPF, TC, OCC walks in to make wise allocatn of resources.
ian
how do those decisions made? eg by economic agents; a. Household (You) - if u have R10 & wish to buy a book & a pen & realise that both commodities seĺl at the same price which of the two (2) can u buy (necesity) and which one can u forgo (not all tht important).
ian
b. firms - they allocat mo resourcs to all thoz commoditz tht they think will yield mo profit. c. Govt - if the govt SA was to come in yo area which 1 would u think they can consider first tht can benefit the majority & the minority. So instead of building football stadium they construct a hospital.
ian
if the SA govt had enough resources they would have built both the stadium and the hospital but because of scarce in terms of resources they had to forgo the construction the stadium to build a hospital which is necessary for the majority to benefit.
ian
Opportunity cost well broken down..
Andres
opportunity cost means the lose of other alternatives when the alternative is chosen
is the benefits that you loose by not selecting a certain alternative.
EDWINY
individual wants maybe unlimited, but means to satisfy them are limited there one has to forgo some alternative in order to acquire other alternative and it must according priority, that is when scale of preference set in for individuals to make choice
Rhaiymornd
hello everyone
Aliyu
Next best alternative forgiven
Shoaib
demand is the amount of goods and services that consumer is willing and able to purchase at a particular prices over given period of time
yep
Abraham
what's demand?
What customers want the most...
Abraham
not only what customers wants, want is just mere desire but demand is backed by purchasing power, ability and willingness
Rhaiymornd
thanks
Abraham
What's opportunity cost?
Abraham
what are the differences between demand and supply
who is called lender of the last resort
Hi
Linda
hlw
Karishma
Central bank
Majeed
hy
Karishma
Hello
Majeed
hy
Karishma
How are you
Majeed
Am gud
Linda
fine
Karishma
Am gud
Linda
hello
Chandra
Well! what's going on
Majeed
r u study in economics
Karishma
anybody there?
Chandra
r u study in economics
Karishma
the central bank
Sessay
Majeed
hey
neha
yes
Abigail
Yesss
Majeed
ok
Karishma
hey
Doctor
yh
Abigail
more questions
Sessay
how ar you
Doctor
split the price effect into income effect and substitution effect
Karishma
fine and u
Abigail
Hi
Godwin
hi
Hey, I am new here. Hope, discussion on Economics will clear our concepts more.
yasir
yes
Abigail
do u speak hindi or english
Karishma
how to consumer equlibrium through ic
Karishma
consumer equilibrium demand equals supply
Kenneth
the consumer is in equilibrium when the indifference curve is tangential to the budget line. or when the BL and IC intersect
Sessay
reasons indifference curve slopes downwards?
Kenneth
fine Abby any good,
Doctor
ur lost
Doctor
hey. im new year. economics teacher how we can discuss some thing interesting.
EDWINY
which one
Doctor
what do u understand the concept of poverty cycle.
EDWINY
hey
Ebong
I'm New here
Ebong
hi
ian
just new here guy's and also an Economics fresher of Kogi State University Anyigba
nelson
wxup
Ayegba
who can tell the laboratory of economic?
Amara
, Dennis Weissman Associates, LLC Laboratory Economics is the monthly business newsletter that gets behind the headlines and press releases.
Ayegba
sooo teah me what an LLC
Emmanuel
what's the topic
economic systems
gracious
hello
Antonio
market
aba
hello where can I find the diagrams
Manu
Hello I am totally out ,I am not understanding why we are here. can someone help me out?
Amara
why Economic is not a pure science can someone help me out
Mohamed
because economics like science put forth a some hypotheses and then do experiments to prove them
Anwesh
but these experiments are not completely controlled
Anwesh
Hello
Comfort
hey
suraj
hi people can you help me out on "demand and supply"
Milton
Am not understanding can someone enlighten me pls
Bertilla
hi people can you help me out on "demand and supply"
Sessay
hello. if Mr.Patrick's income is #900.00 while that of Mr.Shodawe is #1300.00 if Mr.Patrick and Shodowe pay #90.00 and #130.00 as taxes,the tax system is?
Benjamin
Benjamin
regressive tax system
shaikh
OK thanks
Benjamin
Isn't this called proportional tax rate because the rate stays the same - 10%? Tell me if I'm wrong
Ioan
Supply is perfectly elastic and demand increases.
whose there
Waseem
show the demand curve
it slopes downward from left to right
Ama
how resources are allocated in a free economy
explain how discriminating Monopoly increase profits
Charlotte
Difference between extinct and extici spicies
Researchers demonstrated that the hippocampus functions in memory processing by creating lesions in the hippocampi of rats, which resulted in ________.
The formulation of new memories is sometimes called ________, and the process of bringing up old memories is called ________.
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