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  • What are the primary barriers that hinder eligible candidates from applying for a school leadership position?
  • What eligible candidates’ background characteristics (i.e., gender, age, race/ethnicity, sub-administrator status, and years of teaching experience) are associated with their pursuing a school leadership position?

Literature review

Demand for school administrators in california

California is facing several challenges to improve student learning and close the achievement gap, including the highest student-administrator ratio in the country, a large number of students who are English language learners and from low-income families, and a continuing demand for new administrators (EdSource, 2007; Darling-Hammond&Orphanos, 2007; Kearney, 2010).

According to a recent study (White, Fong,&Makkonen, 2010), more than 5,000 school administrators in California (37% of the total) were ages 51-60 and will reach a peak of retirement in the next 10 years; and the cumulative student enrollment will increase by about 1.7% during the period of 2008/09 – 2017/18. When the administrator retirements and student enrollments are combined, “the projected need for new school-site administrators ranges between 9 percent and 71 percent of counties’ 2007/08 administrator workforce” (White et al., 2010, p. 1). Ten large counties in California will have a higher demand for school administrators (Los Angeles, Orange, San Diego, San Bernardino, Riverside, Santa Clara, Sacramento, Alameda, Fresno, and Kern). They accounted for 73% of California’s student enrollment in 2007/08, and will need more than 2,900 administrators in the next 10 years, “or 61 percent of the overall projected need of 4,815 hires statewide” (White et al., 2010, p. 11).

Demand versus supply

It is getting more difficult for schools and districts to fill administrative vacancies (Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning, 2009; Kearney, 2010). On the other hand, research indicates no evidence of a nation-wide shortage of certified candidates to be school administrators (Gates et al., 2003; Papa&Wyckoff, 2002). The same is true in California. As shown in Figure 1, the number of Administrative Services Credentials issued in California increased by 22.8 percent during the 5-year period of 2003/04 to 2007/08, and there are sufficient licensed administrators to fill projected openings (CCTC, 2009).

Figure 1. The number of Administrative Services Credentials issued in California from 2003-04 to 2007-08.

Why are we in the dilemma where there are seemingly sufficient candidates eligible for serving as administrators but there still exists a shortage of applicants for the job? Prior studies showed that many teachers pursuing an administrative credential were not seeking an administrative role. Levine’s (2005) study revealed that many teachers enrolled in leadership programs did not intend to become administrators but were interested in advanced degrees or course credit for salary enhancement. Winter, Rinehart and Munoz (2002) conducted a survey of 194 certified individuals from a large school district; of whom, 71% had earned their certifications for more than five years. They found that “as few as 10 percent of the 194 certified personnel who participated in this research were likely to apply for principal vacancies” (Winter et al., 2002, p. 136). They also found that the primary barriers to pursuing a principalship included “lack of self-reported capability to do the job, and satisfaction with the current job” (Winter et al., 2002, p. 129).

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review, volume 12, number 2 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Sep 26, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11360/1.3
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