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  • What are the primary barriers that hinder eligible candidates from applying for a school leadership position?
  • What eligible candidates’ background characteristics (i.e., gender, age, race/ethnicity, sub-administrator status, and years of teaching experience) are associated with their pursuing a school leadership position?

Literature review

Demand for school administrators in california

California is facing several challenges to improve student learning and close the achievement gap, including the highest student-administrator ratio in the country, a large number of students who are English language learners and from low-income families, and a continuing demand for new administrators (EdSource, 2007; Darling-Hammond&Orphanos, 2007; Kearney, 2010).

According to a recent study (White, Fong,&Makkonen, 2010), more than 5,000 school administrators in California (37% of the total) were ages 51-60 and will reach a peak of retirement in the next 10 years; and the cumulative student enrollment will increase by about 1.7% during the period of 2008/09 – 2017/18. When the administrator retirements and student enrollments are combined, “the projected need for new school-site administrators ranges between 9 percent and 71 percent of counties’ 2007/08 administrator workforce” (White et al., 2010, p. 1). Ten large counties in California will have a higher demand for school administrators (Los Angeles, Orange, San Diego, San Bernardino, Riverside, Santa Clara, Sacramento, Alameda, Fresno, and Kern). They accounted for 73% of California’s student enrollment in 2007/08, and will need more than 2,900 administrators in the next 10 years, “or 61 percent of the overall projected need of 4,815 hires statewide” (White et al., 2010, p. 11).

Demand versus supply

It is getting more difficult for schools and districts to fill administrative vacancies (Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning, 2009; Kearney, 2010). On the other hand, research indicates no evidence of a nation-wide shortage of certified candidates to be school administrators (Gates et al., 2003; Papa&Wyckoff, 2002). The same is true in California. As shown in Figure 1, the number of Administrative Services Credentials issued in California increased by 22.8 percent during the 5-year period of 2003/04 to 2007/08, and there are sufficient licensed administrators to fill projected openings (CCTC, 2009).

Figure 1. The number of Administrative Services Credentials issued in California from 2003-04 to 2007-08.

Why are we in the dilemma where there are seemingly sufficient candidates eligible for serving as administrators but there still exists a shortage of applicants for the job? Prior studies showed that many teachers pursuing an administrative credential were not seeking an administrative role. Levine’s (2005) study revealed that many teachers enrolled in leadership programs did not intend to become administrators but were interested in advanced degrees or course credit for salary enhancement. Winter, Rinehart and Munoz (2002) conducted a survey of 194 certified individuals from a large school district; of whom, 71% had earned their certifications for more than five years. They found that “as few as 10 percent of the 194 certified personnel who participated in this research were likely to apply for principal vacancies” (Winter et al., 2002, p. 136). They also found that the primary barriers to pursuing a principalship included “lack of self-reported capability to do the job, and satisfaction with the current job” (Winter et al., 2002, p. 129).

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review, volume 12, number 2 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Sep 26, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11360/1.3
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