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Emotional intelligence

One skill set frequently cited in the literature as necessary in a variety of situations are the intrapersonal and interpersonal skills associated with Emotional Intelligence (Downey, Papageorgiou, Stough, 2006; Dulewicz&Higgs, 2003; Rosete and Ciarrochi, 2005). While there are numerous studies that provide empirical evidence that EI has a positive effect on leadership effectiveness, (Coetzee&Schaap, 2004; Kerr, Garvin, Heaton, Boyle, 2006; Goleman, 1995,1998; Leban&Zulauf, 2004; Srivsastaava, Bharamanaikar, 2004; Wong&Law, 2002), there are also studies that provide empirical evidence that EI has no statistical significance in leadership effectiveness (Barbuto&Burbach, 2006; Barchard, 2003; Brown, 2005; Brown, Bryant,&Reilly, 2006; Schulte 2002; Weinberger, 2003).

Defining effective leadership and emotional intelligence

The question of definitions is a key element in conducting any research and a particularly critical component of any meta-analysis. The problem of defining leadership is well established in the literature (Bass, 1990; Collins, 2001; Nahavandi, 2003; Northhouse, 2004; Stogdill, 1974). Stoghill said that “there are almost as many different definitions of leadership as there are people who have tried to define it” (p.7). Collins contends that vague, expansive definitions of leadership create problems when analyzing organizational issues. When we define leadership by ascribing unlimited and undifferentiated functions and activities in an organization to leadership, according to Collins, we have really not defined leadership at all. We have simply thrown up our hands in frustration and “we prevent ourselves from gaining deeper, more scientific understanding about what makes companies tick” (p.22).

Although acknowledging the difficulty of providing a precise definition of leadership, Nahavandi (2003) and Northhouse (2004), after conducting comprehensive reviews of the leadership literature, have found elements common to the phenomena of leadership no matter where or how leadership is exercised. Both Nahavandi and Northouse list three common elements. Those three elements are as follows: (a) Leadership involves interaction with a group; (b) Leadership involves the exercise of influence; and (c) Leadership involves the attainment of a goal.

Once we have established a reasonably precise definition of leadership then effective leadership must be defined. Northhouse (2004) stated that leadership effectiveness is measured by the attainment of goals or objectives within a leadership context. Hartman (1999) contends that leadership effectiveness is defined both objectively and subjectively. Subjective measures are usually based on ratings obtained from the leader’s superiors, peers, or subordinates. Examples of objective measures of performance or goal attainment can include profits, profit margin, test scores, graduation rates, sales increases, market shares, or profitability. (Hartman, 1999) The two instruments used to measure leadership effectiveness most frequently cited in the studies included in the meta-analysis were the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) and the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI). The MLQ, developed by Bass and Avolio (2000), is a 45-question questionnaire that attempts to determine the multiple factors constituting a persons’ leadership style. The Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI), developed by Kouzes and Posner (1995), has been used to assess over 350,000 individuals’ leadership skills. It is based on qualitative and quantitative research of everyday actions and behaviors of exemplary leaders in a variety of settings.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Ncpea education leadership review, volume 10, number 2; august 2009. OpenStax CNX. Feb 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10710/1.2
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