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Emotional intelligence

One skill set frequently cited in the literature as necessary in a variety of situations are the intrapersonal and interpersonal skills associated with Emotional Intelligence (Downey, Papageorgiou, Stough, 2006; Dulewicz&Higgs, 2003; Rosete and Ciarrochi, 2005). While there are numerous studies that provide empirical evidence that EI has a positive effect on leadership effectiveness, (Coetzee&Schaap, 2004; Kerr, Garvin, Heaton, Boyle, 2006; Goleman, 1995,1998; Leban&Zulauf, 2004; Srivsastaava, Bharamanaikar, 2004; Wong&Law, 2002), there are also studies that provide empirical evidence that EI has no statistical significance in leadership effectiveness (Barbuto&Burbach, 2006; Barchard, 2003; Brown, 2005; Brown, Bryant,&Reilly, 2006; Schulte 2002; Weinberger, 2003).

Defining effective leadership and emotional intelligence

The question of definitions is a key element in conducting any research and a particularly critical component of any meta-analysis. The problem of defining leadership is well established in the literature (Bass, 1990; Collins, 2001; Nahavandi, 2003; Northhouse, 2004; Stogdill, 1974). Stoghill said that “there are almost as many different definitions of leadership as there are people who have tried to define it” (p.7). Collins contends that vague, expansive definitions of leadership create problems when analyzing organizational issues. When we define leadership by ascribing unlimited and undifferentiated functions and activities in an organization to leadership, according to Collins, we have really not defined leadership at all. We have simply thrown up our hands in frustration and “we prevent ourselves from gaining deeper, more scientific understanding about what makes companies tick” (p.22).

Although acknowledging the difficulty of providing a precise definition of leadership, Nahavandi (2003) and Northhouse (2004), after conducting comprehensive reviews of the leadership literature, have found elements common to the phenomena of leadership no matter where or how leadership is exercised. Both Nahavandi and Northouse list three common elements. Those three elements are as follows: (a) Leadership involves interaction with a group; (b) Leadership involves the exercise of influence; and (c) Leadership involves the attainment of a goal.

Once we have established a reasonably precise definition of leadership then effective leadership must be defined. Northhouse (2004) stated that leadership effectiveness is measured by the attainment of goals or objectives within a leadership context. Hartman (1999) contends that leadership effectiveness is defined both objectively and subjectively. Subjective measures are usually based on ratings obtained from the leader’s superiors, peers, or subordinates. Examples of objective measures of performance or goal attainment can include profits, profit margin, test scores, graduation rates, sales increases, market shares, or profitability. (Hartman, 1999) The two instruments used to measure leadership effectiveness most frequently cited in the studies included in the meta-analysis were the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) and the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI). The MLQ, developed by Bass and Avolio (2000), is a 45-question questionnaire that attempts to determine the multiple factors constituting a persons’ leadership style. The Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI), developed by Kouzes and Posner (1995), has been used to assess over 350,000 individuals’ leadership skills. It is based on qualitative and quantitative research of everyday actions and behaviors of exemplary leaders in a variety of settings.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Ncpea education leadership review, volume 10, number 2; august 2009. OpenStax CNX. Feb 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10710/1.2
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