<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Activity: physical change

Use plastic pellets or marbles to represent water in the solid state. What do you need to do to the pellets to represent the change from solid to liquid?

Chemical changes in matter

When a chemical change takes place, new substances are formed in a chemical reaction. These new products may have very different properties from the substances that were there at the start of the reaction.

The breakdown of copper (II) chloride to form copper and chlorine is an example of chemical change. A simplified diagram of this reaction is shown in [link] . In this reaction, the initial substance is copper (II) chloride, but once the reaction is complete, the products are copper and chlorine.

The decomposition of copper(II) chloride to form copper and chlorine. We write this as: CuCl 2 Cu + Cl 2
Chemical change
The formation of new substances in a chemical reaction. One type of matter is changed into something different.

There are some important things to remember about chemical changes:

  1. Arrangement of particles
    During a chemical change, the particles themselves are changed in some way. In the example of copper (II) chloride that was used earlier, the CuCl 2 molecules were split up into their component atoms. The number of particles will change because each CuCl 2 molecule breaks down into one copper atom ( Cu ) and one chlorine molecule ( CuCl 2 ). However, what you should have noticed, is that the number of atoms of each element stays the same, as does the total mass of the atoms. This will be discussed in more detail in a later section.
  2. Energy changes
    The energy changes that take place during a chemical reaction are much greater than those that take place during a physical change in matter. During a chemical reaction, energy is used up in order to break bonds, and then energy is released when the new product is formed. This will be discussed in more detail in "Energy changes in chemical reactions" .
  3. Reversibility
    Chemical changes are far more difficult to reverse than physical changes.

We will consider two types of chemical reactions: decomposition reactions and synthesis reactions .

Decomposition reactions

A decomposition reaction occurs when a chemical compound is broken down into elements or smaller compounds. The generalised equation for a decomposition reaction is:

AB A + B

One example of such a reaction is the decomposition of mercury (II) oxide ( [link] ) to form mercury and oxygen according to the following equation:

2 HgO 2 Hg + O 2
The decomposition of HgO to form Hg and O 2

The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is another example.

Experiment : the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide

Aim:


To observe the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide when it is heated.

Apparatus:


Dilute hydrogen peroxide (about 3%); manganese dioxide; test tubes; a water bowl; stopper and delivery tube

Method:

  1. Put a small amount (about 5 ml) of hydrogen peroxide in a test tube.
  2. Set up the apparatus as shown in [link]
  3. Very carefully add a small amount (about 0,5 g) of manganese dioxide to the test tube containing hydrogen peroxide.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
What makes metals better to use as wires than non-metals? (please link to bonding type)??? HELP
Yash Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry grade 10 [caps]. OpenStax CNX. Jun 13, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11303/1.4
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Chemistry grade 10 [caps]' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask
Rachel Carlisle
Start Quiz
Jordon Humphreys
Start Quiz
Prateek Ashtikar
Start Quiz
Marion Cabalfin
Start Quiz