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A programmer can sometimes improve performance by making the compiler aware of the constant values in your application. For example, in the following code segment:

X = X * Y

the compiler may generate quite different runtime code if it knew that Y was 0, 1, 2, or 175.32. If it does not know the value for Y , it must generate the most conservative (not necessarily the fastest) code sequence. A programmer can communicate these values through the use of the PARAMETER statement in FORTRAN. By the use of a parameter statement, the compiler knows the values for these constants at runtime. Another example we have seen is:


DO I = 1,10000 DO J=1,IDIM..... ENDDOENDDO

After looking at the code, it’s clear that IDIM was either 1, 2, or 3, depending on the data set in use. Clearly if the compiler knew that IDIM was 1, it could generate much simpler and faster code.

Dead code removal

Programs often contain sections of dead code that have no effect on the answers and can be removed. Occasionally, dead code is written into the program by the author, but a more common source is the compiler itself; many optimizations produce dead code that needs to be swept up afterwards.

Dead code comes in two types:

  • Instructions that are unreachable
  • Instructions that produce results that are never used

You can easily write some unreachable code into a program by directing the flow of control around it — permanently. If the compiler can tell it’s unreachable, it will eliminate it. For example, it’s impossible to reach the statement I = 4 in this program:


PROGRAM MAIN I = 2WRITE (*,*) I STOPI = 4 WRITE (*,*) IEND

The compiler throws out everything after the STOP statement and probably gives you a warning. Unreachable code produced by the compiler during optimization will be quietly whisked away.

Computations with local variables can produce results that are never used. By analyzing a variable’s definitions and uses, the compiler can see whether any other part of the routine references it. Of course the compiler can’t tell the ultimate fate of variables that are passed between routines, external or common, so those computations are always kept (as long as they are reachable). If a compiler does sufficient interprocedural analysis, it can even optimize variables across routine boundaries. Interprocedural analysis can be the bane of benchmark codes trying to time a computation without using the results of the computation. In the following program, computations involving k contribute nothing to the final answer and are good candidates for dead code elimination:


main () {int i,k; i = k = 1;i += 1; k += 2;printf ("%d\n",i); }

Dead code elimination has often produced some amazing benchmark results from poorly written benchmarks. See [link] for an example of this type of code.

Strength reduction

Operations or expressions have time costs associated with them. Sometimes it’s possible to replace a more expensive calculation with a cheaper one. We call this strength reduction . The following code fragment contains two expensive operations:

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, High performance computing. OpenStax CNX. Aug 25, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11136/1.5
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