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Data: integration and understanding

Archaeology produces a vast amount of data of a massive range of types. These include artefact descriptions, measurements, site plans, context plans, photographs, and cartographic and spatial data. Every excavation has particular challenges for data gathering and recording, and the possible responses of excavators to these challenges are constrained by scale, resources, the type of material, and so on. But there is no question that e-Research methods offer enormous potential for supporting such processes; and few archaeologists would doubt the desirability of integrating data from different sites. Eiteljorg (2004) writes of ‘the hope that data storehouses could be used by scholars to retrieve and analyze information from related excavations, thus permitting broader syntheses’ (Eiteljorg 2004: 22): broader synthesis is at the core of academic archaeology, and is vital for any interpretation that seeks to embrace any combination of site, inter-site, or regional scale. However, there is an obvious tension between the structures and standards any database must impose in order to be useful, and the unordered (and incomplete) nature of the archaeological record (see Lock 2003: 85-98). e-Research technologies can support researchers faced with such problems in a number of ways. One approach is the construction of domain-specific ontologies and controlled vocabularies, which can describe and link concepts, and map between different groups of concepts. Thus if artefact of type A is found at site X, then a linked ontological system should be able to identify further examples of type A at site Y, even if the artefacts have been otherwise recorded or described differently. This approach has limitations – those producing data still have to describe and/or annotate the information in a way that conforms with, or can be adapted to, the ontology. This will impose extra costs on already-overburdened resources. On the other hand, standardized metadata and data storage systems can be immensely useful and easy to implement, if supported by centralized support services and repositories like the Archaeology Data Service ( (External Link) ).

Other approaches seek to apply Natural Language Processing (NLP) technologies to primary archaeological material and secondary archives. One such example is the Archaeotools project, conducted as part of the AHRC-JISC-EPSRC Arts and Humanities e-Science Initiative by the universities of York and Sheffield ( (External Link) ). Archaeotools identifies and extracts references to ‘what’, ‘when’ and ‘where’ entities in so-called ‘grey literature’. Grey literature refers to reports of (usually small-scale) archaeological investigations that have been produced and archived, often never to be seen again. The NLP process allows information to be tagged in a systematic way according to ‘what’, ‘where’ and ‘when’ and structured into facets for facetted browsing. It should therefore be possible, for example, to search across a range of disparate archaeological reports for references to data concerning Early Medieval coins from North Eastern England [ when, what, where ], even if the information has not been tagged or described in such terms and the point of being recorded. In another important development, Archaeotools uses NLP-generated entities to search for the information according to the terms in existing controlled vocabularies such as Sites and Monuments Records (SMRs): as will be seen below, integrating e-Research methods within existing practices is essential for archaeology, so allowing researchers to search using the terms and conventions they are already familiar with is critical.

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
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Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
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How we are making nano material?
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What is meant by 'nano scale'?
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What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
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Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
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what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
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if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
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analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
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yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
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biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
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research.net
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Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
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nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
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Source:  OpenStax, Research in a connected world. OpenStax CNX. Nov 22, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10677/1.12
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