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Data: integration and understanding

Archaeology produces a vast amount of data of a massive range of types. These include artefact descriptions, measurements, site plans, context plans, photographs, and cartographic and spatial data. Every excavation has particular challenges for data gathering and recording, and the possible responses of excavators to these challenges are constrained by scale, resources, the type of material, and so on. But there is no question that e-Research methods offer enormous potential for supporting such processes; and few archaeologists would doubt the desirability of integrating data from different sites. Eiteljorg (2004) writes of ‘the hope that data storehouses could be used by scholars to retrieve and analyze information from related excavations, thus permitting broader syntheses’ (Eiteljorg 2004: 22): broader synthesis is at the core of academic archaeology, and is vital for any interpretation that seeks to embrace any combination of site, inter-site, or regional scale. However, there is an obvious tension between the structures and standards any database must impose in order to be useful, and the unordered (and incomplete) nature of the archaeological record (see Lock 2003: 85-98). e-Research technologies can support researchers faced with such problems in a number of ways. One approach is the construction of domain-specific ontologies and controlled vocabularies, which can describe and link concepts, and map between different groups of concepts. Thus if artefact of type A is found at site X, then a linked ontological system should be able to identify further examples of type A at site Y, even if the artefacts have been otherwise recorded or described differently. This approach has limitations – those producing data still have to describe and/or annotate the information in a way that conforms with, or can be adapted to, the ontology. This will impose extra costs on already-overburdened resources. On the other hand, standardized metadata and data storage systems can be immensely useful and easy to implement, if supported by centralized support services and repositories like the Archaeology Data Service ( (External Link) ).

Other approaches seek to apply Natural Language Processing (NLP) technologies to primary archaeological material and secondary archives. One such example is the Archaeotools project, conducted as part of the AHRC-JISC-EPSRC Arts and Humanities e-Science Initiative by the universities of York and Sheffield ( (External Link) ). Archaeotools identifies and extracts references to ‘what’, ‘when’ and ‘where’ entities in so-called ‘grey literature’. Grey literature refers to reports of (usually small-scale) archaeological investigations that have been produced and archived, often never to be seen again. The NLP process allows information to be tagged in a systematic way according to ‘what’, ‘where’ and ‘when’ and structured into facets for facetted browsing. It should therefore be possible, for example, to search across a range of disparate archaeological reports for references to data concerning Early Medieval coins from North Eastern England [ when, what, where ], even if the information has not been tagged or described in such terms and the point of being recorded. In another important development, Archaeotools uses NLP-generated entities to search for the information according to the terms in existing controlled vocabularies such as Sites and Monuments Records (SMRs): as will be seen below, integrating e-Research methods within existing practices is essential for archaeology, so allowing researchers to search using the terms and conventions they are already familiar with is critical.

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
what is hormones?
Wellington
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Source:  OpenStax, Research in a connected world. OpenStax CNX. Nov 22, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10677/1.12
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