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Data: integration and understanding

Archaeology produces a vast amount of data of a massive range of types. These include artefact descriptions, measurements, site plans, context plans, photographs, and cartographic and spatial data. Every excavation has particular challenges for data gathering and recording, and the possible responses of excavators to these challenges are constrained by scale, resources, the type of material, and so on. But there is no question that e-Research methods offer enormous potential for supporting such processes; and few archaeologists would doubt the desirability of integrating data from different sites. Eiteljorg (2004) writes of ‘the hope that data storehouses could be used by scholars to retrieve and analyze information from related excavations, thus permitting broader syntheses’ (Eiteljorg 2004: 22): broader synthesis is at the core of academic archaeology, and is vital for any interpretation that seeks to embrace any combination of site, inter-site, or regional scale. However, there is an obvious tension between the structures and standards any database must impose in order to be useful, and the unordered (and incomplete) nature of the archaeological record (see Lock 2003: 85-98). e-Research technologies can support researchers faced with such problems in a number of ways. One approach is the construction of domain-specific ontologies and controlled vocabularies, which can describe and link concepts, and map between different groups of concepts. Thus if artefact of type A is found at site X, then a linked ontological system should be able to identify further examples of type A at site Y, even if the artefacts have been otherwise recorded or described differently. This approach has limitations – those producing data still have to describe and/or annotate the information in a way that conforms with, or can be adapted to, the ontology. This will impose extra costs on already-overburdened resources. On the other hand, standardized metadata and data storage systems can be immensely useful and easy to implement, if supported by centralized support services and repositories like the Archaeology Data Service ( (External Link) ).

Other approaches seek to apply Natural Language Processing (NLP) technologies to primary archaeological material and secondary archives. One such example is the Archaeotools project, conducted as part of the AHRC-JISC-EPSRC Arts and Humanities e-Science Initiative by the universities of York and Sheffield ( (External Link) ). Archaeotools identifies and extracts references to ‘what’, ‘when’ and ‘where’ entities in so-called ‘grey literature’. Grey literature refers to reports of (usually small-scale) archaeological investigations that have been produced and archived, often never to be seen again. The NLP process allows information to be tagged in a systematic way according to ‘what’, ‘where’ and ‘when’ and structured into facets for facetted browsing. It should therefore be possible, for example, to search across a range of disparate archaeological reports for references to data concerning Early Medieval coins from North Eastern England [ when, what, where ], even if the information has not been tagged or described in such terms and the point of being recorded. In another important development, Archaeotools uses NLP-generated entities to search for the information according to the terms in existing controlled vocabularies such as Sites and Monuments Records (SMRs): as will be seen below, integrating e-Research methods within existing practices is essential for archaeology, so allowing researchers to search using the terms and conventions they are already familiar with is critical.

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Research in a connected world. OpenStax CNX. Nov 22, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10677/1.12
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