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Data collection

I use students’ writing journals in all of the courses I teach for a variety of reasons including determining their opinions, discovering gaps in understanding, as well as to frame their thinking and inform class discussions. All aspirants are required to journal during the first 15 minutes of each class session. I sought and received approval from the university’s Institutional Review Board to use student writing journal responses in this study; all of the participating students signed informed consent letters with anonymity guaranteed.

The prompt that served as the focus of the current study was Why Me? Why Now? The journal responses to this prompt were analyzed to determine self-reported motivation to prepare to become school leaders. Since traditionally the results from the exit survey of this program have found that over 92% of our students plan to pursue a position within five years of completion, it was determined that initial reports of motivation were a valid indicator of their goals.

Data analysis

The journal entries of 83 aspirants were transcribed and labeled with self-reported demographic data. The contents of each journal entry were distilled through open coding; once initially coded by the researcher, a colleague used the same codes and independently reviewed the entries. While coding was confirmed and yielded consistent results, 15-18 codes were further explored collaboratively to yield three robust themes – leadership, internal motivation, and external motivation. These themes were determined to be the most effective in reporting findings. The data was then pattern coded for more discrete themes and categorized by frequency (Miles&Huberman, 1994).

In order to report on the whole content of each journal entry, pattern coding yielded seven discrete themes (Table 1). The key to the labels of the seven discrete themes of coded responses represented in Table 1 are: (1) Leadership Skills Only means that the entire journal entry discussed only leadership skills; (2) Internal Motivation Only means that the entire journal entry cited internal motivation without mentioning any other motivating force; (3) External Motivation Only was the label given to journal entries where only external motivating factors were expressed; (4) Leadership and Internal Motivation means that both of these themes were evident in these journal entries; (5) Leadership and External Motivation was the label given to entries where both elements were expressed; (6) Internal and External Motivation means that the entire journal entry cited both internal and external motivating forces; and (7) Leadership, Internal, and External Motivation means that all three of these forces were cited in the journal entry. Actual sample statements from the study participants are presented as examples of each of the seven discrete themes.

Sample statements written in response to the prompt, Why Me?
Themes Sample Statements
Leadership Skills Only “I possess a lot of qualities that would make a good leader”; “I am always gravitating toward administration&policy.”
Internal Motivation Only “I feel more confident in what I am doing professionally and believe that it is time to expand myself.” ; “I am here because I chose to be here. I am choosing to do something that no one in my immediate family has ever done – graduate school.”
External Motivation Only “I am hoping someday to change things from the top.” ; “I have entered into the program because I want to do more. I want to impact more individuals on a larger scale.”
Leadership&Internal Motivation “I also believe I have a whole lot of leadership experience to add to the success of students and the community in which it is set…I am raising a family and the way to move up on the pay scale to add to my family’s comfort level would be to enter the ranks of administration.”
Leadership&External Motivation “I have become a teacher leader at my school…To be able to make a difference as a school leader, as a principal, would be an incredible next step for me.”
Internal&External Motivation “I feel that I have been called to work, or at least , receive the training of administration to help those that need it the most…I am hoping to get a pay raise, to feed my family, and serve my community with the new knowledge and skills that will be attained.”
Leadership, Internal&External Motivation “This passion is not merely a desire to educate others, but a desire to continually develop and expand my own knowledge…I have a gift of leadership and I intend and seek to use it as needed… I will make a difference in children’s lives and I believe that this is the correct path for me”

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Educational leadership and administration: teaching and program development, volume 23, 2011. OpenStax CNX. Sep 08, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11358/1.4
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