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Data collection

I use students’ writing journals in all of the courses I teach for a variety of reasons including determining their opinions, discovering gaps in understanding, as well as to frame their thinking and inform class discussions. All aspirants are required to journal during the first 15 minutes of each class session. I sought and received approval from the university’s Institutional Review Board to use student writing journal responses in this study; all of the participating students signed informed consent letters with anonymity guaranteed.

The prompt that served as the focus of the current study was Why Me? Why Now? The journal responses to this prompt were analyzed to determine self-reported motivation to prepare to become school leaders. Since traditionally the results from the exit survey of this program have found that over 92% of our students plan to pursue a position within five years of completion, it was determined that initial reports of motivation were a valid indicator of their goals.

Data analysis

The journal entries of 83 aspirants were transcribed and labeled with self-reported demographic data. The contents of each journal entry were distilled through open coding; once initially coded by the researcher, a colleague used the same codes and independently reviewed the entries. While coding was confirmed and yielded consistent results, 15-18 codes were further explored collaboratively to yield three robust themes – leadership, internal motivation, and external motivation. These themes were determined to be the most effective in reporting findings. The data was then pattern coded for more discrete themes and categorized by frequency (Miles&Huberman, 1994).

In order to report on the whole content of each journal entry, pattern coding yielded seven discrete themes (Table 1). The key to the labels of the seven discrete themes of coded responses represented in Table 1 are: (1) Leadership Skills Only means that the entire journal entry discussed only leadership skills; (2) Internal Motivation Only means that the entire journal entry cited internal motivation without mentioning any other motivating force; (3) External Motivation Only was the label given to journal entries where only external motivating factors were expressed; (4) Leadership and Internal Motivation means that both of these themes were evident in these journal entries; (5) Leadership and External Motivation was the label given to entries where both elements were expressed; (6) Internal and External Motivation means that the entire journal entry cited both internal and external motivating forces; and (7) Leadership, Internal, and External Motivation means that all three of these forces were cited in the journal entry. Actual sample statements from the study participants are presented as examples of each of the seven discrete themes.

Sample statements written in response to the prompt, Why Me?
Themes Sample Statements
Leadership Skills Only “I possess a lot of qualities that would make a good leader”; “I am always gravitating toward administration&policy.”
Internal Motivation Only “I feel more confident in what I am doing professionally and believe that it is time to expand myself.” ; “I am here because I chose to be here. I am choosing to do something that no one in my immediate family has ever done – graduate school.”
External Motivation Only “I am hoping someday to change things from the top.” ; “I have entered into the program because I want to do more. I want to impact more individuals on a larger scale.”
Leadership&Internal Motivation “I also believe I have a whole lot of leadership experience to add to the success of students and the community in which it is set…I am raising a family and the way to move up on the pay scale to add to my family’s comfort level would be to enter the ranks of administration.”
Leadership&External Motivation “I have become a teacher leader at my school…To be able to make a difference as a school leader, as a principal, would be an incredible next step for me.”
Internal&External Motivation “I feel that I have been called to work, or at least , receive the training of administration to help those that need it the most…I am hoping to get a pay raise, to feed my family, and serve my community with the new knowledge and skills that will be attained.”
Leadership, Internal&External Motivation “This passion is not merely a desire to educate others, but a desire to continually develop and expand my own knowledge…I have a gift of leadership and I intend and seek to use it as needed… I will make a difference in children’s lives and I believe that this is the correct path for me”

Questions & Answers

is economics important in programming world?
Abdul Reply
What is oppunity cost
Kudzanayi Reply
it refers wants that are left unsatisfied in Oder satisfy another more pressing need
Osei
Thank bro
Kudzanayi
is the second altenative to foregone
swedy
How does monopoly and imperfect competion;public goods externalities ass symmetric information, ommon property ressourses; income distribution Merit goods and Macroeconomic growth and stability causes market failure?
Gcina
it is where by a labour moves from one place to another
Amoako Reply
yh
Osei
another
Amoako
yh
Osei
ok
Amoako
what is mobility of labour
George Reply
who best defined economics
paul Reply
what are the importance of economics
Adwoa Reply
answer
Asamoah
trade should be best
Aakash
help to know how our government operates in which system
swedy
1. To solve economic problems. 2. To predict economic event. 3. It also offer intellectual training to students.
samuel
How price elasticity can affect the markets of certain goods
Rhoda Reply
Heyy thanks for the teaching
Easter Reply
what is labour
Arthur Reply
Mental and physical ability of human being is considered as labour.
JEYARAM
and usually provided by human
KEMAWOR
is all human effort both physical and mental abilities to work
Asamoah
why is it that most countries in Africa abuse available resources
Okeoghene Reply
What is economics
Bright Reply
economics is a science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends, scarce means which have alternative uses.
prince
Why is scarcity a mind problem in economics
Alima Reply
because of the problem of allocation of resources
Osola
unequalled distribution of resources
Agyen
thanks
Alima
scarcity is a mind problem due to circumstances like when a particular product is demand in a high rate at the market.
Saihou
scarcity defines limited in supply relative to the demand them. so scarcity is a mind problem in economics because wants are unlimited while resources are also limited.
prince
it is a mind problem because it's one of the fundamental issue address by economics human wants are unlimited and resources available are limited this makes the study of economics essential
rashid
its a fundamental issue
zahid
it's not a mind problem, I think it's a economic problem, how to allocate scarce resources to satisfy need and want of society
Samiullah
Identify the different sectors in the economy
Moses Reply
what is economics
Moses
economic is study of human behaviour according to how they satisfie their numerous want
Osola
Economics is a science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scares resources.
JEYARAM
economic is study of human behaviour according to how they satisfie their numerous want
Amar
what is the law of demand
Adugbire Reply
the lower the price the higher the quantity demanded vice versa is true
Nadhin
yes
vivek
yes ooh
Asamoah
right
samuel
what are relationship between unemployment and economic growth
Weness Reply
no relationship
Awuah
When there is economic growth, there is increased opportunity in employment. When there is no economic growth mean there is recession causing a decline or downsizing in employment opportunities.
Teescou
unemployment or employment determined by the level of economic growth
Osola
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Source:  OpenStax, Educational leadership and administration: teaching and program development, volume 23, 2011. OpenStax CNX. Sep 08, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11358/1.4
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