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School districts were selected from a total of 167 districts listed in the South Dakota Department of Education, Educational Directory for the school year 2006-2007. This convenient sample was based on school size, geographic region of the state, and administrator’s willingness to participate in the study. Seven school districts, for a total of 131 educators, agreed to participate in the study. Two of the school sites had enrollments of over 200 students, while two had 150 or more students and three had less than 100 students enrolled. All districts participating in the study were located within a hundred mile radius in the southeastern region of South Dakota. There were two elementary building administrators, two middle school principals, three secondary administrators, and one 7-12 principal. One hundred twenty-five respondents were classroom teachers. There were four female administrators and three male administrators, and 42 male teachers and 89 female teachers participated in the study.

Data analysis

Conjoint analysis is a multivariate technique, frequently used in market research, providing insight into how participants develop preferences for products or ideas (Pietzrak, 2006). Conjoint analysis is appropriate for research in the educational arena (Shukla&Bruno, 2001; Wong, Chan, Cardosa, Lam,&Miller, 2004). Shukla and Bruno (2001) suggested that identifying a person’s preference may provide insight into the choices or decisions that they will be required to make in their professional positions. In this study, conjoint analysis is used to assess educators’ perceptions of the value of the professional administrative standards developed by Educational Leadership Constituent Council, as well as, their perceptions on the implementation of these standards in administrative practice.

Systat software is used to determine the means, standard deviations, and frequencies for each survey item. In addition, the Mann Whitney U Test and the Kruskal-Wallis Test are utilized to analyze perceptions based on the characteristics of gender, years of teaching experience, and educational level.


Seven school sites were included in this study providing input from 132 teachers and eight school administrators. All respondents completed a survey that asked them to rank the importance they perceived for each ELCC standard, as well as, rank how each individual perceived the leader practiced the ELCC standards. Table 1 provides a summary of the means for the teachers’ and administrators’ perceptions as to the ranking of the ELCC standards.

Teachers’ and administrators’ ranking of the importance of elcc standards
Mean Teachers Rank Teachers Mean Administrators Rank Administrators
Vision 2.64 3 2.88 3
Instructional Leadership 2.56 2 1.63 1
Management 3.15 4 3.75 4
Community Relations 4.30 5 5.00 5
Ethical Leadership 2.00 1 2.25 2
Professional Involvement 5.59 6 5.50 6

Administrators’ and teachers’ perceptions of importance of the ELCC standards were generally in agreement; however, there is a difference in the rating of the most important standard. Administrators rank instructional leadership as most important, and teachers rank ethical leadership as most important.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Source:  OpenStax, Ncpea education leadership review, volume 10, number 2; august 2009. OpenStax CNX. Feb 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10710/1.2
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