<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >


Hungary, along with the Balkans and Poland, sent cattle on the hoof to Germany and Venice. Sigismund (actually Bohemian) was King of Hungary as the century opened and soon became Holy Roman Emperor. It was under his reign that a peasant revolt broke out over tithe money in the Transylvania region (now a part of Romania). This resulted in an institution called "The Union of the Three Nations" under which the nobles of Transylvania, along with the Saxons and the Szekels, formed a league for mutual defense against all except the king. Sigismund was followed by a young Polish king, Vladislav V, who was called Ulaszlo by the Hungarians.

At that time, Janos Hunyadi, son of a lesser noble of Vlach origin, who had been rapidly promoted in the army, defeated the Turks in Transylvania in 1442 and then, with King Vladislav V, undertook a Balkan campaign where eventually they were disastrously defeated and the king was killed. The heir was yet a baby so his uncle, Emperor Frederick, left Hunyadi in charge of Hungary, as regent. In 1456 the regent fought and defeated the Turks beyond Belgrade and had no further trouble with them for many years. The young king died soon after Hunyadi's death and there ensued a scramble for the throne. Finally, the nobles elected Hunyadi's son, Matyas (Matthias or Mathew). He was a true Renaissance prince, who fought 4 wars with the German Emperor Frederick III, finally gaining Lower Austria and Styria for his domains. This first Austro-Hungarian Empire was thus Hungarian. When Matyas died with no heir, the Hungarians took Vladislas Jagiella, another Bohemian king, as their own. Lower Austria was then given back to the current emperor, Maximilian. (Ref. 124 )


The phenomenon of earning wages by hiring out as a laborer was early seen in the mines of Bohemia. The considerable investment required for equipment for deep mines could be made only by merchants, who then paid men to do the work. (Ref. 292 ) As a source of energy, horizontal water wheels were still used in Bohemia at this time. (Ref. 260 ) We have seen in the paragraphs immediately above that there was a close association at this period, of Bohemia with Hungary.

As early as 1410 Germans and Czechs had clashed at the University of Prague over the papal schism and the German teachers and students had left and gone to Saxony, where they eventually founded the University of Leipsig. Under the reign of Wenceslaus IV, John Huss, a priest of Prague, began to preach the doctrines of Wycliff, challenging image worship, auricular confession, many ornate rites, indulgences and the existence of purgatory. The Church banished him and eventually burned him at the stake as an heretic, along with his friend and supporter, Jerome. The news of Huss' death caused the Bohemian Revolution of 1415 to 1436, in which the people denounced the death and declared that they would fight to defend the doctrines of Christ against the man-made decrees of the Church. They formulated the "Four Articles of Prague", as follows:

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'A comprehensive outline of world history' conversation and receive update notifications?