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In 1241 when the Mongols came, both Bohemia and Moravia were ruled by Wenceslas I (1230-1253), although subject to the German emperor's control. When the northern Mongol armies went south to join Batu and Subedei after the battle of Leignetz (to be discussed in a later paragraph), they burned and killed to such an extent that later both Moravian and Silesian towns had to be resettled by German immigrants. Certain tax benefits helped to entice them there. (Ref. 27 ) Subsequently, under Ottocar II (1253-1269), Bohemia had great prosperity with the opening of great silver mines, which made that one of the wealthiest countries of the late Middle Ages. Ottocar even expanded to acquire Austria under his control for a short period. It was fear of this Premysl king that led the German princes to then elect Rudolf of Habsburg as their king. Ottocar ref used to recognize him and the Diet of Regesburg of 1274 therefore declared all of Ottocar's acquisitions void. He was finally defeated and killed in battle with Rudolf on the Marchfield in 1278. The Bohemian throne went to Wenceslas II, a boy of seven, with Otto of arandenburg acting as regent. (Ref. 222 )


Although it may not have been clearly defined in previous chapters, the country we now know as Switzerland was originally the home of mixed Celtic, Teutonic and Italic tribes, including the Helvetii, Raeti, Leopontii and Alemanni. Separated by vast mountain ranges, many "cantons" developed in the valleys. The entire area was under control of the Habsburgs until after Rudolf's death in 1291, and the cantons were then caught up in the dynastic strife of the Germans. At that time, three of the forest cantons - Uri, Nidwalden and Schwyz, formed the "Everlasting League" to give mutual aid. Soon other cantons - Lucerne, Zurich and Contance, joined the League and they had the beginnings of the nation of Switzerland.

Western europe

By this time some areas of western Europe had stopped growing grain. France had put its land, in part, into wine growing and elsewhere farmers had turned more to stock-breeding. Another factor was the cheap water transportation of grain from Germany's east along the Baltic to northern and western Europe rather than to the southern areas. There had been a shift from piracy to trade along the Atlantic coast, where Vikings had previously raided. (Ref. 279 , 211 ) The western European population rise continued throughout this century.


In this and the preceding century, Cistercian orders in Galicia in northwest Spain induced peasants to lease church owned waste land for 2% of the capital value, with the leases supposedly to last for three generations. This was to make much trouble later, as we shall see in the chapter on the 17th century. (Ref. 213 ) Castile, originally a tributary of the kings of Leon, was permanently united to Leon in 1230 and soon controlled more than one-half of the Iberian peninsula. It became a truly monarchial state under Alfonso X (1252-1284), although he soon gave lavish concessions to the nobles and therefore lost some power for the crown. The Cortes appeared as an assembly of nobles allowed to petition the king and, in a sense, to legislate, thus anticipating the English parliament. Sheep became the big crop of that area and by 1300 there were 1,500,000 of these animals in Castile alone. Mental life stirred and six universities were founded, while bull fighting became a common sport. (Ref. 8 , 211 )

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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