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Following the death of Bretislav II the dukedom of Bohemia was obtained for Ladislav I with the help of the German emperor. There were multiple local "kings" all over this area but all were more or less subservient to the German emperor, except in the northern portion which was controlled by the Polish kings. Duke Ottokar I was restored to power in 1197 and strengthened Bohemia, so that it became a real factor in German affairs. (Ref. 222)


This country did not exist independently at this time.

Western europe

"Western Europe had begun its slow climb out of political dislocation and feudal anarchy during the 12th century"

Quotation from Reference 8 page 124
. Although weakened, kings had survived and now, under feudalism they exerted their rights as "liege lords". There was a prolonged population rise beginning about 1100 and lasting for 2 1/2 centuries. (Ref. 260)


The militancy of the Catholic Church in this period of the Crusades was especially noticeable in the Christian part of Spain. Alfonso I of Aragon even named the Templars and Hospitallers heirs to his kingdom. It is ironical then, that this particular period ushered in 200 years of anarchy and civil war between rival Christian kingdoms of the northern sectors. Aragon and Navarre separated in 1134 and the former advanced progressively while the latter shrunk and lost still more territory to Castile at the end of the century. Leon seceded from Castile in 1139; Aragon and Barcelona united in 1140.

NOTE: Insert SPAIN IN 1180

Moslem Spain in the south was taken over by the Berber Almohades (Muwahids) as the older Almoravid Dynasty (Murabit) collapsed in 1145. Muslim Spain made silk, particularly in the great industrial city of Almeria, which at one time had five thousand looms. The Alpujarras Mountains were covered with mulberry trees, essential for the silk worm. The mining of mercury and silver continued to be important Spanish industries and there was a paper factory in Moorish Spain at least by the middle of the century, with the Arabs using rags, wood and straw as the source materials. (Ref. 137, 213)

The greatest man in Spain in this century was a Moslem heretic - the great physician and philosopher, Averroes. He was the first to explain the function of the retina and did some work on immunity. Philosophically, he pleaded for a better understanding between religion and philosophy, stating that symbolically interpreted, the doctrines of religion could be harmonized with the findings of science and philosophy. His importance for the history of ideas lay in his stimulating effect upon Latin Christian theologians. From the late Roman period Aristotle had been curiously disguised by a Neo-Platonic garb but Averroes work abstracted Aristotle from this alien dress and permitted the theologians of Paris to start their revolutions of Christian philosophy from a more or less authentic Aristotelian basis. Another great Arabist physician of this century was Avenzoar (Abu-Marwan ibn-Zohr), born in Seville, the son of a Jewish physician. He condemned astrology and mysticism in medicine and disagreed with some of Galen's teachings. His reports on tracheotomy suggest that he may have done some surgery. The most famous Jewish physician of all in Arabic medicine, however, was Maimonides (Moses ben Maimon), born in Cordoba and a student of Averroes. When the Almohade Dynasty began to harass non-believers, he fled to Morocco and finally to Cairo where he became physician to Sultan Saladin. Translations of his writings into Hebrew and Latin were widely read throughout Christian Europe. Other Jewish physicians who fled Spain at the same time ended up in Salerno and Montpellier where they brought Arabic science and medicine to Christian Europe. (Ref. 49, 139, 125)

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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