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Czechoslovakia

Following the death of Bretislav II the dukedom of Bohemia was obtained for Ladislav I with the help of the German emperor. There were multiple local "kings" all over this area but all were more or less subservient to the German emperor, except in the northern portion which was controlled by the Polish kings. Duke Ottokar I was restored to power in 1197 and strengthened Bohemia, so that it became a real factor in German affairs. (Ref. 222)

Switzerland

This country did not exist independently at this time.

Western europe

"Western Europe had begun its slow climb out of political dislocation and feudal anarchy during the 12th century"

Quotation from Reference 8 page 124
. Although weakened, kings had survived and now, under feudalism they exerted their rights as "liege lords". There was a prolonged population rise beginning about 1100 and lasting for 2 1/2 centuries. (Ref. 260)

Spain

The militancy of the Catholic Church in this period of the Crusades was especially noticeable in the Christian part of Spain. Alfonso I of Aragon even named the Templars and Hospitallers heirs to his kingdom. It is ironical then, that this particular period ushered in 200 years of anarchy and civil war between rival Christian kingdoms of the northern sectors. Aragon and Navarre separated in 1134 and the former advanced progressively while the latter shrunk and lost still more territory to Castile at the end of the century. Leon seceded from Castile in 1139; Aragon and Barcelona united in 1140.

NOTE: Insert SPAIN IN 1180

Moslem Spain in the south was taken over by the Berber Almohades (Muwahids) as the older Almoravid Dynasty (Murabit) collapsed in 1145. Muslim Spain made silk, particularly in the great industrial city of Almeria, which at one time had five thousand looms. The Alpujarras Mountains were covered with mulberry trees, essential for the silk worm. The mining of mercury and silver continued to be important Spanish industries and there was a paper factory in Moorish Spain at least by the middle of the century, with the Arabs using rags, wood and straw as the source materials. (Ref. 137, 213)

The greatest man in Spain in this century was a Moslem heretic - the great physician and philosopher, Averroes. He was the first to explain the function of the retina and did some work on immunity. Philosophically, he pleaded for a better understanding between religion and philosophy, stating that symbolically interpreted, the doctrines of religion could be harmonized with the findings of science and philosophy. His importance for the history of ideas lay in his stimulating effect upon Latin Christian theologians. From the late Roman period Aristotle had been curiously disguised by a Neo-Platonic garb but Averroes work abstracted Aristotle from this alien dress and permitted the theologians of Paris to start their revolutions of Christian philosophy from a more or less authentic Aristotelian basis. Another great Arabist physician of this century was Avenzoar (Abu-Marwan ibn-Zohr), born in Seville, the son of a Jewish physician. He condemned astrology and mysticism in medicine and disagreed with some of Galen's teachings. His reports on tracheotomy suggest that he may have done some surgery. The most famous Jewish physician of all in Arabic medicine, however, was Maimonides (Moses ben Maimon), born in Cordoba and a student of Averroes. When the Almohade Dynasty began to harass non-believers, he fled to Morocco and finally to Cairo where he became physician to Sultan Saladin. Translations of his writings into Hebrew and Latin were widely read throughout Christian Europe. Other Jewish physicians who fled Spain at the same time ended up in Salerno and Montpellier where they brought Arabic science and medicine to Christian Europe. (Ref. 49, 139, 125)

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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