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Most of the wide variety of classifiers performed within an order of magnitude of each other, except for one called “Hyperpipes" which performed two orders of magnitude better than any of the others. This struck Dr. Padley as very strange as he had never heard of the Hyperpipes algorithm before.

Current work - elec 631 fall 2011

One interesting aspect of the behavior of the Hyperpipes algorithm on the dataset was the very low true positive rate: less than 10% of the t-tbar events were correctly classified as such. However, the false positive rate was much, much lower – this is what accounted for its good performance. At this point the author became suspicious that the default parameters for the WEKA machine learning algorithms were poorly suited to this application and that some of the other algorithms could also demonstrate greatly improved performance with a little tuning. Since logistic regression is relatively simple, and since the author now understands a little about how the algorithm works from the on-line Stanford course, the decision was made to try and tune it to this application.

Cost matrix

The first stage of tuning involved adjusting the cost matrix. This followed from the observation that when training a classifier, we really want to penalize false positives much more harshly than false negatives. Sacrificing up to 50% of our true positives is acceptable if it leads to a very large decrease in background false positive events and thus an improved signal-to-noise ratio. Keeping the true positive rate relatively high is still important as t-tbar events are rare enough that keeping enough for statistical significance is still a problem, as we shall see a bit later.

A variety of cost matrices were created and the logistic regression classifier in WEKA was trained on a training data set with each one of them. The resulting classification models were then tested on a cross-validation data set. Both the training data set and the cross-validation set had 10,000 of each type of event as before. The results are summarized in Table TODO. Note that as expected, increasing the cost of false positives relative to other kinds of errors greatly improved the signal to noise ratio with an acceptable decrease in the true positive rate. Note that the cost matrices are properly scaled by WEKA: only the relative costs of the different types of errors represented by the cost matrix matter. Interestingly, eliminating the costs associated with misclassifying W background events as QCD background events and vice-versa seems to have no effect on the signal-to-noise ratio.

Choosing a cost matrix which penalizes each type of false positive 300 times more than other types of errors seemed to give good results without leading to diminishing returns in the form of decreased true positives. Penalizing false positives caused by QCD events more than W events didn't improve the results on the large test set.

Ratio of signal to background in training set

Dr. Devika Subramanian of the Rice Computer Science department suggested that classifiers need to be trained on data that has each type of event to be classified in a ratio that is roughly the same as that in the real test data. This suggestion indicated that the previous strategy of training classifiers with an equal ratio of each type of event was unsound. Unfortunately, generating training and test sets with the correct ratio of event types is quite difficult because of the huge backgrounds that must be generated, in this case several million QCD events for every t-tbar event. Generating enough background for 100 t-tbar events would take a modern cpu core over 1000 days to compute enough background.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
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how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
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it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
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Source:  OpenStax, Introductory survey and applications of machine learning methods. OpenStax CNX. Dec 22, 2011 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11400/1.1
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