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Current expenditure and its effects on learning

The next question, of course, is what are institutions of higher education spending on online instruction? Pascarella and Terenzini (2005) reviewed the literature and concluded that the per student cost for distance learning was not statistically significantly different from the cost of on-campus instruction. In other words, rather than being willing to spend what it takes, institutions of higher education are only willing to spend the same amount of money as they spend for the same course on campus. Thus, most online courses really involve using 21st Century technology to offer little more than 19th Century correspondence courses with a discussion board. All that has really changed is the speed of communication (e.g., using e-mail instead of snail mail). Although technology has the power to improve education, the power of new technologies is not being harnessed for online instruction. Instead, technology is simply being used to do what we have always done. Administrators, we argue, must be willing to expend the money to involve ID experts and technology specialists in the development of online courses rather than leaving this process solely to the SMEs.

The information dump has long been the preferred teaching method in higher education. In the past, it occurred through a combination of textbooks and classroom lectures. As such, information dumps left students to sink or swim based on their individual learning skills and, perhaps, the help they could obtain from other students. An argument can be made that at one time it was an appropriate approach to college teaching. Higher education is now at a time of increased access (resulting in increased student diversity) and skyrocketing tuitions. Indeed, many online students are nontraditional learners. They have weaker learning skills and weaker technological skills than do traditional students. Online learners also tend to engage in online lessons at the worse possible time, that is, after fulfilling all their other life obligations (Dierkmann, 2001). For most “working mothers” this situation means they will sit down to their online lessons after 40 hours of employed work and 72 hours of household work. Society will simply no longer accept sink or swim teaching methods that result in high student attrition (Burke&Associates, 2005). Dressing up the information dump with electronic technology is unlikely to fool the public for very long.

Given the current low level of investment in the development of online courses, what is the effect of these courses on student learning? The data are not particularly heartening. Although Pascarella and Terenzini (2005) reported that students in distance education appear to learn as much course content as do students on campus, serious methodological flaws are present in this research. The main flaw is that the distance learning students are self-selected through both enrollment and attrition. Thus, the results of research to date are best translated as, given every possible advantage, online courses seem to produce about the same level of learning at the lower levels of Bloom’s taxonomy as standard lectures. Given that 50% of college graduates now lack college level skills (Pascarella&Terenzini, 2005), this level of learning certainly will not meet the needs of the information age in which people must be able to process information rather than simply memorize it. Nor will it meet the growing demands to improve the quality of higher education.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Ncpea handbook of online instruction and programs in education leadership. OpenStax CNX. Mar 06, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11375/1.24
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