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Cultural infrastructure and the public

In 1990 the World Wide Web was just an idea—or, more specifically, a proposal entitled “InformationManagement”

Tim Berners-Lee (External Link) .
being circulated by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN (Conseil Européen pour larecherché nucléaire/European Organization for Nuclear Research). In 1993 there were two hundred known Web servers. Ten years later, in 2003, there were forty million servers, and in 2006, that numberhas doubled to more than eighty million servers hosting billions of Web pages.
Netcraft, “April 2006 Web Server Survey” (External Link) .
For many people, access to the Internet and its resources is nowindispensable, but it is more than a place where people shop, seek information, or find entertainment. According to the Pew Internet&American Life Project study,
Pew Internet&American Life Project, “Internet: The Mainstreaming of Online Life” (External Link) .
the Internet “creates new online town squares” and “enhances therelationship of citizens to their government.”

Putting the historical record online opens it to people who rarely have had such access it before. For example,the Library of Congress allows high-school students into its reading rooms only under special circumstances, but any student mayenter its American Memory site

Library of Congress, American Memory (External Link) .
to view the virtual archive on the same terms of access as the most seniorhistorian or member of Congress. If digitized properly, many online texts and images are accessible to those with visual impairments orother disabilities through screen readers and other supportive technologies.

Digital collections also allow for juxtapositions of works that are held in disparate physicalcollections. For example, the William Blake Archive

Library of Congress (External Link) .
not only makes the works of Blake available to the general public but also allowsusers to juxtapose and compare works that are physically housed in libraries, museums, and art galleries around the world.

This remarkable connectivity has brought scholars into broader communication with nonscholarly audiences, aswell. Humanists and social scientists now routinely hear from students and members of the general public who have found theire-mail addresses and have questions. Scholars who have created Web sites based on their work are often pleasantly surprised that theirwork has found entirely new audiences—or, rather, that new audiences have found that work. Nonacademic users of the Universityof North Carolina’s archival Web site Documenting the American South

speak eloquently of feeling “privileged to have access to these primary sources, as if they hadentered an inner sanctum where they did not fully belong,” reports former university librarian Joe Hewitt.

Still, access is far from universal. Those who use freely accessible resources will find materials publishedbefore World War I more plentiful than newer materials, owing to copyright limitations. Scholars and members of the public who arenot affiliated with research universities will find that access to a significant number of resources is by subscription only, and thatsubscription is priced at a level that only institutions can afford. One independent scholar of history and respondent to asurvey on use of digital resources (conducted in the course of the Commission’s work by the Center for History and New Media), speaksfor many when she says:

I am an independent scholar [and] so do nothave the kind of access to facilities that academics do. A research associateship at the Five College Women's Studies Research Centerallows me the access via Mount Holyoke College, [but] only duringthe term of the association. So yes, there are problems for those of us not attached to a subscribing institution.

In addition to digitizing materials, projects to collect and preserve born-digital content are criticallyimportant. In 1994, for example, film director Steven Spielberg established Survivors of the Shoah Foundation, with a mission tovideotape and preserve the testimonies of Holocaust survivors and witnesses. Today the USC Shoah Foundation Institute’s VisualHistory Archive

at the University of Southern California has collected more than fifty-twothousand eyewitness testimonies in fifty-six countries and thirty-two languages, all of which are extensively indexed so thatsophisticated searching in the archive can be easily conducted by anyone via the Internet. In 1996 The Internet Archive was founded with the purpose of offering permanent access for researchers, historians,and scholars to historical collections that exist in digital format.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, "our cultural commonwealth" the report of the american council of learned societies commission on cyberinfrastructure for the humanities and social sciences. OpenStax CNX. Dec 15, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10391/1.2
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