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Cultural infrastructure and the public

In 1990 the World Wide Web was just an idea—or, more specifically, a proposal entitled “InformationManagement”

Tim Berners-Lee (External Link) .
being circulated by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN (Conseil Européen pour larecherché nucléaire/European Organization for Nuclear Research). In 1993 there were two hundred known Web servers. Ten years later, in 2003, there were forty million servers, and in 2006, that numberhas doubled to more than eighty million servers hosting billions of Web pages.
Netcraft, “April 2006 Web Server Survey” (External Link) .
For many people, access to the Internet and its resources is nowindispensable, but it is more than a place where people shop, seek information, or find entertainment. According to the Pew Internet&American Life Project study,
Pew Internet&American Life Project, “Internet: The Mainstreaming of Online Life” (External Link) .
the Internet “creates new online town squares” and “enhances therelationship of citizens to their government.”

Putting the historical record online opens it to people who rarely have had such access it before. For example,the Library of Congress allows high-school students into its reading rooms only under special circumstances, but any student mayenter its American Memory site

Library of Congress, American Memory (External Link) .
to view the virtual archive on the same terms of access as the most seniorhistorian or member of Congress. If digitized properly, many online texts and images are accessible to those with visual impairments orother disabilities through screen readers and other supportive technologies.

Digital collections also allow for juxtapositions of works that are held in disparate physicalcollections. For example, the William Blake Archive

Library of Congress (External Link) .
not only makes the works of Blake available to the general public but also allowsusers to juxtapose and compare works that are physically housed in libraries, museums, and art galleries around the world.

This remarkable connectivity has brought scholars into broader communication with nonscholarly audiences, aswell. Humanists and social scientists now routinely hear from students and members of the general public who have found theire-mail addresses and have questions. Scholars who have created Web sites based on their work are often pleasantly surprised that theirwork has found entirely new audiences—or, rather, that new audiences have found that work. Nonacademic users of the Universityof North Carolina’s archival Web site Documenting the American South

speak eloquently of feeling “privileged to have access to these primary sources, as if they hadentered an inner sanctum where they did not fully belong,” reports former university librarian Joe Hewitt.

Still, access is far from universal. Those who use freely accessible resources will find materials publishedbefore World War I more plentiful than newer materials, owing to copyright limitations. Scholars and members of the public who arenot affiliated with research universities will find that access to a significant number of resources is by subscription only, and thatsubscription is priced at a level that only institutions can afford. One independent scholar of history and respondent to asurvey on use of digital resources (conducted in the course of the Commission’s work by the Center for History and New Media), speaksfor many when she says:

I am an independent scholar [and] so do nothave the kind of access to facilities that academics do. A research associateship at the Five College Women's Studies Research Centerallows me the access via Mount Holyoke College, [but] only duringthe term of the association. So yes, there are problems for those of us not attached to a subscribing institution.

In addition to digitizing materials, projects to collect and preserve born-digital content are criticallyimportant. In 1994, for example, film director Steven Spielberg established Survivors of the Shoah Foundation, with a mission tovideotape and preserve the testimonies of Holocaust survivors and witnesses. Today the USC Shoah Foundation Institute’s VisualHistory Archive

at the University of Southern California has collected more than fifty-twothousand eyewitness testimonies in fifty-six countries and thirty-two languages, all of which are extensively indexed so thatsophisticated searching in the archive can be easily conducted by anyone via the Internet. In 1996 The Internet Archive was founded with the purpose of offering permanent access for researchers, historians,and scholars to historical collections that exist in digital format.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, "our cultural commonwealth" the report of the american council of learned societies commission on cyberinfrastructure for the humanities and social sciences. OpenStax CNX. Dec 15, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10391/1.2
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