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Css box model

W3C box model
The W3C standard box model

How to position elements

(External Link)

The default is that elements are positioned static . This means that the element is not positioned in special way. It is in the normal flow of elements.

Use of relative position.


A validator checks if a CSS file contains no erroneous CSS selectors and rules. W3C validator

Css 3

CSS3 (CSS level 3) builds on CSS level 2. Unlike CSS2 which is a single specification document CSS3 is devided into several separate recommendations documents. They are called "modules". See table of specifications of the W3C.

News about the implementation of the new features css3.info . Web site which tests CSS3 implementation in browsers.

Interactive construction of CSS3 code (e.g. rounded corners, shadow, etc) css3please.com



There is an add-on called Firebug to the Firefox web browser which helps to debug CSS style sheets. It helps as well to learn about CSS (External Link) .

InternetExplorer 8, 9 and 10 give access to developer tools (Manual) through the F12 key.

Css versus xsl

Why does W3C recommend two different style languages? Which one should you use? Basically, the rule can be summarized very succinctly: Use CSS when you can, use XSL when you must. (External Link)

Css in mobile devices

CSS mobile (current status) aims at describing a subset of CSS useful for mobile devices.

Media queries

CSS media queries (W3C spec) allow that style rules are only applied to specific output media, i.e. screen, print, handheld or other. They can as well depend on conditions like display width. The following example demonstrates the idea

@media (max-width: 320px) { /* rules for mobile devices go here */} @media (min-width: 321px) {/* rules for devices with larger screens go here */ }

More about media queries; collection of example sites

Use of media queries to implement a responsive navigation, i.e. a navigation which works on desktop or laptop computers where there is a cursor and on touch devices (mobile phones, tablets).


A CSS framework is one or more CSS files which include style declarations on which you can build by either extending or replacing them. The aim is that you do can rely on ready-made designs and do not need to create workarounds for the browser inconsistencies.

Skeleton : Responsive boilerplate

Bootstrap Bootstrap is a popular HTML, CSS, and JS framework for developing responsive projects.

(External Link) -- a set of small, responsive CSS modules; see also (External Link) (Scalable and Modular Architecture for CSS).

Web fonts

Current browsers may load fonts front the web ( @font-face property) and thus support the font part of CSS 3 .

Google font service

Google provides a service from which you can choose free fonts. It generates some code which you can add to your website. They as well provide a font API and host a repository with free fonts. So you might add the Gentium font by adding an import rule at the beginning of your style sheet

@import url(http://fonts.googleapis.com/css?family=Gentium+Basic&subset=latin,latin-ext);

But you may as well copy a free font to a directory of your own website and serve it from there. For an example of loading a font see below. Gentium is a free font under the Open Font License (OFL).

@font-face { font-family: Gentium;src: url(http://yoursite/fonts/Gentium.ttf); }p { font-family: Gentium, serif; }

Xhtml plus css to pdf

Further reading

Useful coding techniques

W3C CSS Test Harness

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Test collection. OpenStax CNX. Jul 20, 2012 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11420/1.2
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