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I first present the extent to which Hispanics in general, and specifically Hispanic immigrants, are involved in the U.S. criminal justice system as victims, arrestees, and prisoners. Following the criminological tenet that criminal behavior is socially learned, and as such, corresponds to a society’s culture and structure, the significance of this massive Hispanic immigrant involvement is then theoretically interpreted as an assimilation mode. Finally, my study points to research on Hispanic delinquents for clues to how gang interactions and police-immigrant contacts help to assimilate second-generation adolescents to the criminal justice culture and structure.

Hispanics’ involvement in the u.s. criminal justice system

There is limited information on the extent of Hispanic involvement in criminal justice. Even less is available for distinguishing between Hispanic immigrant and native-born criminal justice involvement. However, reasonable generalizations about immigrant involvement can be made on the basis of known characteristics of foreign and native-born Hispanics. Drawing from criminal justice and demographic research, the discussion below examines existing knowledge about Hispanic immigrants and children of immigrants as crime victims, arrestees, and prisoners. Also considered is the limited information on Hispanic undocumented immigrants’ experiences with crime and justice.

Crime victims

The U.S. National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) estimated the violent crime victimization rate in 2000 to be 2,900 per 100,000 persons age 12 or older, while the property crime rate was estimated at 17,800 per 100,000 (BJS, 2001). Hispanic victimization rates are slightly higher than non-Hispanics’. In 2000, as shown in Table 1, 2,710 per 100,000 persons ages 12 or older reported being victims of rape, robbery, aggravated assault, simple assault, or personal theft. Hispanic rates were slightly higher than the mean; Blacks had the highest victimization rates, 3,530 offenses per 100,000, while those of Whites and others (Asians and American Indians) were below the mean. The NCVS report shows rates per 1,000 persons. Here they are converted to rates per 100,000 in order to compare them with arrest and imprisonment rates, which are reported per 100,000 population. The figures slightly overestimate the extent of White victimization because NCVS classifies Hispanics’ race according to the respondent’s self-definition of race. Making the simple assumption that all Hispanics define their race as White and subtracting the Hispanic population from the White total, the non-Hispanic White victimization rate is reduced by less than 1 percentage point. The reported Hispanic rates appear to represent a payoff from a decade of diminishing crime. For instance, at the beginning of the 1990s, Hispanic personal victimization rates were 10% higher than non-Hispanics’, and Hispanic property victimization rates were 40% higher than non-Hispanics’.

Table 1. Personal Victimization Rates per 100,000 Persons Age 12 or older, Year 2000. According to Type of Offense, Race and Ethnicity.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
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Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
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Adin
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Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
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it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Immigration in the united states and spain: consideration for educational leaders. OpenStax CNX. Dec 20, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11150/1.1
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