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Introduction

A structure type can contain a number of dissimilar data objects within it. Unlike a simple variable (which contains only one data object) or an array (which, although it contains more than one data item, only contains items of a single data type),a structure is a collection of related data of different types. a name, for example, might be array of characters, an age might be integer. A structure representing a person, say, could contain both a name and an age, each represented in the appropriate format.

Declarations and usage of structures

Until now, all the data that we have dealt with has been either of a basic type such as char, int and double…, or an array of those types. However, there are many situations in real life where a data item needs to be made up from other more basic types. We could do this with an array if the constituent types were all the same, but often they are different. For example, suppose we want to record the details of each student in a class. The detail of each student might be as follow:

  • A unique student number, which could be represented as a string (an array of char ).
  • The student’s name, which could be represented as a string (an array of char ).
  • Final mark for the Introduction to computer science course, which is a floating point value (a float ).

Creating structures as new data types

The definition of a structure type begins with the keyword struct, and contains a list of declarations of the structure's members, in braces:

struct structTag {<list of members>; };
Definition ends with semicolon (;)

The three components above can be placed in a structure declared like this:

struct Student {char StudentID[10];char name[30];float markCS ; };
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The keyword struct introduces a structure declaration, which is a list of declarations enclosed in braces. An optional name called a structure tag may follow the word struct (as with Student here). The tag names this kind of structure, and can be used subsequently as a shorthand for the part of the declaration in braces. The variables named in a structure are called members. A structure member or tag and an ordinary (i.e., non-member) variable can have the same name without conflict, since they can always be distinguished by context. Furthermore, the same member names may occur in different structures, although as a matter of style one would normally use the same names only for closely related objects.

Creating variable of a struct type

Structure types are not considered a variable declaration, just definition of a new type, so they cannot store anything until we declare variable of this type. Here is how we would create:

type_name_of_struct name_of_variable;

Creating three variables a, b, c of the Student type:

Student a, b, c;

Creating an array of the Student type:

Student studentCS[50];
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A member of a structure may have any desired complete type, including previously defined structure types. They must not be variable-length arrays, or pointers to such arrays. For instance, now we want to record more information of students, for example their date of birth, which comprises the day, month and year. So first, let's start with the date, because that is a new type that we may be able to use in a variety of situations. We can declare a new type for a Date thus:

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to computer science. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10776/1.1
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