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Left kidney

The left panel of this figure shows the location of the kidneys in the abdomen. The right panel shows the cross section of the kidney.

Renal hilum

The renal hilum    is the entry and exit site for structures servicing the kidneys: vessels, nerves, lymphatics, and ureters. The medial-facing hila are tucked into the sweeping convex outline of the cortex. Emerging from the hilum is the renal pelvis, which is formed from the major and minor calyxes in the kidney. The smooth muscle in the renal pelvis funnels urine via peristalsis into the ureter. The renal arteries form directly from the descending aorta, whereas the renal veins return cleansed blood directly to the inferior vena cava. The artery, vein, and renal pelvis are arranged in an anterior-to-posterior order.

Nephrons and vessels

The renal artery first divides into segmental arteries, followed by further branching to form interlobar arteries that pass through the renal columns to reach the cortex ( [link] ). The interlobar arteries, in turn, branch into arcuate arteries, cortical radiate arteries, and then into afferent arterioles. The afferent arterioles service about 1.3 million nephrons in each kidney.

Blood flow in the kidney

This figure shows the network of blood vessels and the blood flow in the kidneys.

Nephrons are the “functional units” of the kidney; they cleanse the blood and balance the constituents of the circulation. The afferent arterioles form a tuft of high-pressure capillaries about 200 µm in diameter, the glomerulus    . The rest of the nephron consists of a continuous sophisticated tubule whose proximal end surrounds the glomerulus in an intimate embrace—this is Bowman’s capsule    . The glomerulus and Bowman’s capsule together form the renal corpuscle    . As mentioned earlier, these glomerular capillaries filter the blood based on particle size. After passing through the renal corpuscle, the capillaries form a second arteriole, the efferent arteriole    ( [link] ). These will next form a capillary network around the more distal portions of the nephron tubule, the peritubular capillaries    and vasa recta    , before returning to the venous system. As the glomerular filtrate progresses through the nephron, these capillary networks recover most of the solutes and water, and return them to the circulation. Since a capillary bed (the glomerulus) drains into a vessel that in turn forms a second capillary bed, the definition of a portal system is met. This is the only portal system in which an arteriole is found between the first and second capillary beds. (Portal systems also link the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary, and the blood vessels of the digestive viscera to the liver.)

Blood flow in the nephron

This image shows the blood vessels and the direction of blood flow in the nephron.
The two capillary beds are clearly shown in this figure. The efferent arteriole is the connecting vessel between the glomerulus and the peritubular capillaries and vasa recta.

Visit this link to view an interactive tutorial of the flow of blood through the kidney.

Cortex

In a dissected kidney, it is easy to identify the cortex; it appears lighter in color compared to the rest of the kidney. All of the renal corpuscles as well as both the proximal convoluted tubules (PCTs)    and distal convoluted tubules    are found here. Some nephrons have a short loop of Henle    that does not dip beyond the cortex. These nephrons are called cortical nephrons    . About 15 percent of nephrons have long loops of Henle that extend deep into the medulla and are called juxtamedullary nephrons    .

Chapter review

As noted previously, the structure of the kidney is divided into two principle regions—the peripheral rim of cortex and the central medulla. The two kidneys receive about 25 percent of cardiac output. They are protected in the retroperitoneal space by the renal fat pad and overlying ribs and muscle. Ureters, blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves enter and leave at the renal hilum. The renal arteries arise directly from the aorta, and the renal veins drain directly into the inferior vena cava. Kidney function is derived from the actions of about 1.3 million nephrons per kidney; these are the “functional units.” A capillary bed, the glomerulus, filters blood and the filtrate is captured by Bowman’s capsule. A portal system is formed when the blood flows through a second capillary bed surrounding the proximal and distal convoluted tubules and the loop of Henle. Most water and solutes are recovered by this second capillary bed. This filtrate is processed and finally gathered by collecting ducts that drain into the minor calyces, which merge to form major calyces; the filtrate then proceeds to the renal pelvis and finally the ureters.

Questions & Answers

what is anatomy
Juma Reply
Hi everyone, Why actyl choline decreases blood pressure although it affects adrenal gland leading it to secret adrenaline and noradrenaline which increase blood pressure?
cholinergic receptors are mostly under Parasympathetic response while adrenergic (norepinephrine) receptors are mostly sympathetic although they are cholinergic adrenergic receptors as well
Ayodeji
vocal cords
MT Reply
musah was admitted to your ward yesterday with traumatic amputation of the right thump . he complained this morning that he has not passed enough urine. Questions. 1) will you consider his complain to be pathological or physiological?. 2) in less than three sentences, justify your opinion. 3) Apply your understanding of the renin- angiotensin-aldosterone system to explain the factors and mechanisms accounting for his complains.
Ellen Reply
the mineral salt which break up a large portion of bone tissue is
Aurora Reply
calcium
Calcium
Sawda
please I need help. musah was admitted to your ward yesterday with traumatic amputation of the right thump. he complained this morning that he has not passed enough urine. Questions. 1). will you consider his complain to be pathological or physiological?.
Ellen
2). In less than three sentences, justify your opinion.
Ellen
Physiological
Ruth
musah copmlan to be physiological because of:-
Juma
cholesterol and triglycerides in simplest terms are fats (lipid) found in blood
Roy Reply
calcium is important for bone density and development. it also helps for safe / normal blood clotting, blood circulation to and from the heart, and muscle movement
Roy
what is muscle tissue
Rifat Reply
the muscle tissue is one of the 4 basic tissues in our body and is responsible for movement of our body
What Is difference between Ovary and Ovum
Sawda
ovary is female reproductive organ while ovum is a female gamete formed from ovary
Ubaidah
Thank You
Sawda
What Is Cholesterol and Triglycerides
Sawda
the mineral salt which break up a large portion of bone tissue
Aurora
in simple way muscle tissue is responsible for movement of our body.
Wellington
Hi Be Home Be safe , how are things doing hope all is well
Natarajan Reply
3 longitudinal bands of smooth muscles found in large intestines
Jamia
what's is sutures
Nimeshka Reply
what would I like to know
Roy Reply
anything u can tell me
Roy
anatomy mins
Manish
when two or more bones meet.
Joseph
Joints
Anita
I am interested in learning but it is a little threatening corona virus covid 19
Samnang Reply
I don't know about Corona virus
Vicky
what would you like to know?
Mbasa
what is a peripheral protien
Ayesha Reply
actually its located in between the lipid layer, it does not specify if it's closer to the inside or the outside of the cell
Justin
It is protein found in lipid bilayer but found attached with Cytoplasm aspect
Jamal
what are the collection of blood.?
sunshine Reply
Effect of exercise on different body systems?
Rania Reply
what is ambroylogy
kashif Reply
embryology..is the biological studing of embryos
Ava
I know biological study but embryology mean any pic, example?
kashif
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b6/Comparative_embryology_of_the_vertebrates%3B_with_2057_drawings_and_photos._grouped_as_380_illus_%281953%29_%2820482505100%29.jpg
Ava
I like to learn about medical and more
Samnang

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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