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Scholars repeatedly raise several basic concerns about electronic publication that must be addressed beforethe discipline can move forward. Art historians will not—and need not—surrender the pleasure of slowly reading a beautifully illustrated book, a pleasure not likely to be replicated in theelectronic realm. Some worry that the electronic medium imposes, as it were, a cognitive style that favors scanning over close readingand modular information over holistic argument, but the growing range of electronic materials will gradually refute thistechnologically determinist position. Scholars in this study were prepared to believe that distinctive benefits will emerge fromelectronic publication, but flagged practical, professional, and disciplinary concerns summarized below. Their concerns may beunderstood as problems of transition in developing a new framework of scholarly communication.

Image quality

Image quality is a decisive consideration in art history publishing. While image quality will require constantvigilance, continuing technological improvements highlight the advantages of digital illustrations over their print analogs interms of color, interactivity, and quantity. Color is a rare luxury in scholarly print publications (exhibition catalogues are theexception), but color in online publications adds no extra cost. Zooming and panning tools make it possible to illustrate anargument with a thoroughness rarely achieved in print and fulfill the art historian’s singular desire to enlarge details and move through buildings. Of course there are costs, still unquantified,of online illustration programs, but costs are not based on the use of color, resolution, or digital enhancements such asmagnification. As a result, electronic publications promise sumptuous, richly detailed, and interactive color illustrationprograms unparalleled in print form.

As set forth in Part II of this report, the regime of copyright restrictions has limited access to digitalimages and thwarted the potential to reach an expanding audience on the World Wide Web. Electronic publication requires still more thanaccess to images. For the truly dynamic way we propose to use images, licenses must grant liberal terms of use.

Owners of works of art and images of them have a strong attachment to the integrity of the works, and copyrightlicenses habitually insist that images may not be cropped, rotated, animated, or manipulated in publication. When the heuristic valueof interactive images to the works of art can be shown consistently, this objection can be expected to fall away.

Credentialing and academic quality

Because born-digital publications of monographic scope do not now exist in the field, it is not clear ifthey would be accorded the same weight in tenure review as a printed book. Nevertheless, the perception that digitalpublications will be considered lesser contributions threatens to create a self-reinforcing resistance to such initiatives. Thissituation is likely to be changed by two dynamics. First, the increasing capacity of digital print-on-demand may succeed inerasing our awareness of a manuscript’s electronic origins. E-books will cease to seem a breed apart and join a continuum of books withvarying production values. A 2006 University of California study envisioned this outcome: "because print on demand technology makesit possible cost effectively to produce high-quality print versions of rigorous reviewed digital-first or digital-only publications,print publication is no longer a meaningful surrogate for peer review and quality of imprint."

See the report on Scholarly Book Publishing endorsed by the University of California Academic Council on April19, 2006, at (External Link) . Comparing the print and online versions of his book City of Bits , William J. Mitchell noted the distinction between the precisedesign control over the printed book and the variable appearance of the online version depending on browsers and other factors. Hecasts the issue as producer control of the book versus user personalization online. This formulation suggests a future scenarioin which the customer/reader will have a choice of different production standards and price points when downloading onlinematerial. See Mitchell, "Homer to Home Page: Designing Digital Books," in Rethinking Media Change: The Aesthetics of Transition , ed. David Thorburn and Henry Jenkins (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press,2003), 209-10.
Second, the desire to publish will cause scholars to readjust their expectations in response to marketforces: shrinking opportunities to publish traditional print monographs will send authors to other publishing outlets. If thediscipline creates properly vetted and enhanced electronic alternatives, they will attract top manuscripts and thepublications will have credibility with tenure committees.
The first Gutenberg-e authors have been tenured on the basis of electronic monographs. See Patrick Manning,"Gutenberg-e: Electronic Entry to the Historical Professoriate," American Historical Review December 2004, 1505-26.
Our proposal to use the journals as a portal seeks to mitigateprofessional concerns.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
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Source:  OpenStax, Art history and its publications in the electronic age. OpenStax CNX. Sep 20, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10376/1.1
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