# 3.5 Classical optimizations

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Once the intermediate language is broken into basic blocks, there are a number of optimizations that can be performed on the code in these blocks. Some optimizations are very simple and affect a few tuples within a basic block. Other optimizations move code from one basic block to another without altering the program results. For example, it is often valuable to move a computation from the body of a loop to the code immediately preceding the loop.

In this section, we are going to list classical optimizations by name and tell you what they are for. We’re not suggesting that you make the changes; most compilers since the mid-1980s automatically perform these optimizations at all but their lowest optimization level. As we said at the start of the chapter, if you understand what the compiler can (and can’t) do, you will become a better programmer because you will be able to play to the compiler’s strengths.

## Copy propagation

To start, let’s look at a technique for untangling calculations. Take a look at the following segment of code: notice the two computations involving `X` .

``` X = Y Z = 1.0 + X```

As written, the second statement requires the results of the first before it can proceed — you need `X` to calculate `Z` . Unnecessary dependencies could translate into a delay at runtime. This code is an example of a flow dependence. I describe dependencies in detail in [link] . With a little bit of rearrangement we can make the second statement independent of the first, by propagating a copy of `Y` . The new calculation for `Z` uses the value of `Y` directly:

``` X = Y Z = 1.0 + Y```

Notice that we left the first statement, `X=Y` , intact. You may ask, “Why keep it?” The problem is that we can’t tell whether the value of `X` is needed elsewhere. That is something for another analysis to decide. If it turns out that no other statement needs the new value of `X` , the assignment is eliminated later by dead code removal.

## Constant folding

A clever compiler can find constants throughout your program. Some of these are “obvious” constants like those defined in parameter statements. Others are less obvious, such as local variables that are never redefined. When you combine them in a calculation, you get a constant expression . The little program below has two constants, `I` and `K` :

``` PROGRAM MAIN INTEGER I,KPARAMETER (I = 100) K = 200J = I + K END```

Because `I` and `K` are constant individually, the combination `I+K` is constant, which means that `J` is a constant too. The compiler reduces constant expressions like `I+K` into constants with a technique called constant folding .

How does constant folding work? You can see that it is possible to examine every path along which a given variable could be defined en route to a particular basic block. If you discover that all paths lead back to the same value, that is a constant; you can replace all references to that variable with that constant. This replacement has a ripple-through effect. If the compiler finds itself looking at an expression that is made up solely of constants, it can evaluate the expression at compile time and replace it with a constant. After several iterations, the compiler will have located most of the expressions that are candidates for constant folding.

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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