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Wipo draft provisions on traditional cultural expressions/folklore and traditional knowledge (2006)

In 1998, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) embarked on a fact-finding mission to 28 countries to identify intellectual property-related regulations of traditional knowledge. Following a review of those materials, the WIPO Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore (the IGC) was formed in 2001. Since 2004, it has been  working  on draft provisions for the enhanced protection of traditional cultural expressions against misappropriation and misuse. Although the provisions are still in draft form, they are meant to serve as points of reference for ongoing policy discussions at the national, regional, and international levels.

The Draft Provisions have the following objectives: to recognize value; to promote respect; to meet the actual needs of communities; to prevent the misappropriation of traditional cultural expressions/expressions of folklore; to empower communities; to support customary practices and community cooperation; to contribute to safeguarding traditional cultures; to encourage community innovation and creativity; to promote intellectual and artistic freedom, research and cultural exchange on equitable terms; to contribute to cultural diversity; to promote community development and legitimate trading activities; to preclude unauthorized IP rights and to enhance certainty, transparency and mutual confidence. The General Guiding Principles and Substantive Principles are available  here .

Convention on the protection and promotion of the diversity of cultural expressions (2005)

The Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions builds off the earlier  Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity  of (2001).  Canada, France, Germany, Greece, Mexico, Monaco, Morocco,  and  Senegal  and Francophone member states of UNESCO strongly supported the Convention. The  United States  opposed it. 104 countries have acceded to or ratified the Convention.

The Convention recognizes "the importance of traditional knowledge as a source of intangible and material wealth, and in particular the knowledge systems of indigenous peoples, and its positive contribution to sustainable development, as well as the need for its adequate protection and promotion." It seeks to “to reaffirm the sovereign rights of States to maintain, adopt and implement policies and measures that they deem appropriate for the protection and promotion of the diversity of cultural expressions on their territory” (Article 1(h)). The Convention also seeks to mitigate the dilution of culture that follows from the movement of cultural goods and services across national borders.

The Convention mentions intellectual property rights once, by recognizing "the importance of intellectual property rights in sustaining those involved in cultural creativity." The Convention is ambiguous, however, on how much protection to grant to TCEs. Article 6 lists the types of measures member states may adopt to protect and promote cultural diversity. Subsection 2(g) allows “measures aimed at nurturing and supporting artists and others involved in the creation of cultural expressions” but subsection 2(e) allows for measure that “promote the free exchange and circulation of . . . cultural expressions and cultural activities, goods and services.” Strong support for indigenous groups as creators of TCEs is not required by Article 7, as members states need only “endeavour to recognize the important contribution of artists, others involved in the creative process, cultural communities, and organizations that support their work, and their central role in nurturing the diversity of cultural expressions.” Professor Laurence R. Helfer has noted  that the Convention disregards the protection for TCEs that could be derived from the use of intellectual property law.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Copyright for librarians. OpenStax CNX. Jun 15, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11329/1.2
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