<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Imagine a symphony orchestra where each musician plays without regard to the conductor or the other musicians. At the first tap of the conductor’s baton, each musician goes through all of his or her sheet music. Some finish far ahead of others, leave the stage, and go home. The cacophony wouldn’t resemble music (come to think of it, it would resemble experimental jazz) because it would be totally uncoordinated. Of course this isn’t how music is played. A computer program, like a musical piece, is woven on a fabric that unfolds in time (though perhaps woven more loosely). Certain things must happen before or along with others, and there is a rate to the whole process.

With computer programs, whenever event A must occur before event B can, we say that B is dependent on A. We call the relationship between them a dependency. Sometimes dependencies exist because of calculations or memory operations; we call these data dependencies . Other times, we are waiting for a branch or do-loop exit to take place; this is called a control dependency . Each is present in every program to varying degrees. The goal is to eliminate as many dependencies as possible. Rearranging a program so that two chunks of the computation are less dependent exposes parallelism , or opportunities to do several things at once.

Control dependencies

Just as variable assignments can depend on other assignments, a variable’s value can also depend on the flow of control within the program. For instance, an assignment within an if-statement can occur only if the conditional evaluates to true. The same can be said of an assignment within a loop. If the loop is never entered, no statements inside the loop are executed.

When calculations occur as a consequence of the flow of control, we say there is a control dependency , as in the code below and shown graphically in [link] . The assignment located inside the block-if may or may not be executed, depending on the outcome of the test X .NE. 0. In other words, the value of Y depends on the flow of control in the code around it. Again, this may sound to you like a concern for compiler designers, not programmers, and that’s mostly true. But there are times when you might want to move control-dependent instructions around to get expensive calculations out of the way (provided your compiler isn’t smart enough to do it for you). For example, say that [link] represents a little section of your program. Flow of control enters at the top and goes through two branch decisions. Furthermore, say that there is a square root operation at the entry point, and that the flow of control almost always goes from the top, down to the leg containing the statement A=0.0 . This means that the results of the calculation A=SQRT(B) are almost always discarded because A gets a new value of 0.0 each time through. A square root operation is always “expensive” because it takes a lot of time to execute. The trouble is that you can’t just get rid of it; occasionally it’s needed. However, you could move it out of the way and continue to observe the control dependencies by making two copies of the square root operation along the less traveled branches, as shown in [link] . This way the SQRT would execute only along those paths where it was actually needed.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, High performance computing. OpenStax CNX. Aug 25, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11136/1.5
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'High performance computing' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask