# Continuous random variables

 Page 1 / 3
Continuous Random Variables: Introduction is part of the collection col10555 written by Barbara Illowsky and Susan Dean and serves as an introduction to the uniform and exponential distributions with contributions from Roberta Bloom.

## Student learning outcomes

By the end of this chapter, the student should be able to:

• Recognize and understand continuous probability density functions in general.
• Recognize the uniform probability distribution and apply it appropriately.
• Recognize the exponential probability distribution and apply it appropriately.

## Introduction

Continuous random variables have many applications. Baseball batting averages, IQ scores, the length of time a long distance telephone call lasts, the amount of money a person carries, thelength of time a computer chip lasts, and SAT scores are just a few. The field of reliability depends on a variety of continuous random variables.

This chapter gives an introduction to continuous random variables and the many continuous distributions. We will be studying these continuous distributions for several chapters.

The values of discrete and continuous random variables can be ambiguous. For example, if $X$ is equal to the number of miles (to the nearest mile) you drive to work, then $X$ is a discrete random variable. You count the miles. If $X$ is the distance you drive to work, then you measure values of $X$ and $X$ is a continuous random variable. How the random variable is defined is very important.

## Properties of continuous probability distributions

The graph of a continuous probability distribution is a curve. Probability is represented by area under the curve.

The curve is called the probability density function (abbreviated: pdf ). We use the symbol $f(x)$ to represent the curve. $f(x)$ is the function that corresponds to the graph; we use the density function $f(x)$ to draw the graph of the probability distribution.

Area under the curve is given by a different function called the cumulative distribution function (abbreviated: cdf ). The cumulative distribution function is used to evaluate probability as area.

• The outcomes are measured, not counted.
• The entire area under the curve and above the x-axis is equal to 1.
• Probability is found for intervals of x values rather than for individual x values.
• $((P\left(c, x), d\right))$ is the probability that the random variable X is in the interval between the values c and d. $((P\left(c, x), d\right))$ is the area under the curve, above the x-axis, to the right of c and the left of d.
• $((P\left(x, c\right)), 0)$ The probability that x takes on any single individual value is 0. The area below the curve, above the x-axis, and between x=c and x=c has no width, and therefore no area (area = 0). Since the probability is equal to the area, the probability is also 0.

We will find the area that represents probability by using geometry, formulas, technology, or probability tables. In general, calculus is needed to find the area under the curve for many probability density functions. When we use formulas to find the area in this textbook, the formulas were found by using the techniques of integral calculus. However, because most students taking this course have not studied calculus, we will not be using calculus in this textbook.

There are many continuous probability distributions. When using a continuous probability distribution to model probability, the distribution used is selected to best model and fit the particular situation.

In this chapter and the next chapter, we will study the uniform distribution, the exponential distribution, and the normal distribution. The following graphs illustrate these distributions.

**With contributions from Roberta Bloom

how can chip be made from sand
are nano particles real
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
1 It is estimated that 30% of all drivers have some kind of medical aid in South Africa. What is the probability that in a sample of 10 drivers: 3.1.1 Exactly 4 will have a medical aid. (8) 3.1.2 At least 2 will have a medical aid. (8) 3.1.3 More than 9 will have a medical aid.