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Natural sciences

Energy transfers and forces

Educator section


  • Examples of self-assessment have been included in the module to assess the learner’s contribution to the debate, and there is also a “control list” for the research assignment.

Leaner section


Activity: to emphasis the sensible use of the resources of the earth [lo 3.2]


a. Do research into the nuclear accident that occurred at Chernobyl in Russia in 1986. Write (at least one folio sheet) on the fearful effects of the tragedy with regard to the inhabitants and the environment


b. Find out what happens to marine life when ships leak oil. Write about it.

c. Arrange a class debate. Form two groups.

One group has to protest against nuclear power and the other group must offer arguments in favour of the use of it.

Make use of your knowledge of nuclear fuels and fossil fuels, as well as of renewable energy sources (the sun, wind and water) when you prepare your arguments.

Make use of the questionnaire that follows to assess your input.

Self AssessmentResearch
Name : ___________________________________________________________
Subject : ___________________________________________________________
Grade : ___________________________________________________________
Have you used more than one source? ______ ______ ______ ______ Are you sure that you have used your own words throughout? ______ ______ ______ ______ Do you have a meaningful introduction? ______ ______ ______ ______ Did you enjoy the assignment? ______ ______ ______ ______ Were you able to extend your knowledge by executing the assignment? ______ ______ ______ ______

Self Assessment




Always Sometimes Never
Have I stated my arguments clearly? ______ ______ ______
Did the other participants listen to my arguments? ______ ______ ______
Did I support the arguments of the other members of my group? ______ ______ ______
Could I elaborate on the arguments put forward by the other members of my group? ______ ______ ______
Did I use appropriate words? ______ ______ ______
Could I refute the arguments put forward by the other group? ______ ______ ______


Alternative sources of energy, e.g. wind energy, is more environment friendly but very expensive. We therefore have to continue using fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas) and wood. Although new coal and petroleum reserves are still being discovered, these will eventually be exhausted. It is therefore of great importance to use our sources of energy as effectively as possible.

Electricity is convenient and practical, but is has to be generated and this incurs costs. Electrical appliances are classified according to their use of electricity. This is measured in watt or kilowatt (1 kilowatt = 1 000 watt) Electricity accounts are calculated according to the number of units recorded by an electricity meter. This unit is a kilowatt-hour (kWh), i.e. the amount of electricity used by a one-kilowatt appliance in one hour. An automatic washing machine is usually classified as a three-kilowatt appliance. This means that one can expect an account for three units of electricity for each hour that the machine is operated.


Learning Outcome 3: The learner will be able to demonstrate an understanding of the interrelationships between science and technology, society and the environment.

Assessment Standard 3.2: We know this when the learner understands sustainable use of the earth’s resources: analyses information related to renewable and non-renewable sources.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 7. OpenStax CNX. Sep 16, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11077/1.1
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