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Explains what happens in constellation mapping in DMT.

Constellation mapping

In the constellation mapping process, length B segments of the bitstreams are assigned a single complex value in a constellation . This is similar to quadrature ampliture modulation (QAM), because the IFFT of these complex points maps to various sinusoids with amplitudes proportional to the real part and phase shifts proportional to the complex part. We mostly used 2-bit (4 point) and 4-bit (16 point) constellations in our system, but we also coded a function that generates a mapping with an arbitrary number of points. In comparison, constellations used in actual DMT systems can have as many as 240 points. Important characteristics of these constellations include the area occupied by the points and the spacing between points. The power neccessary to transmit the actual signal is proportional to the area, so it is key not to let the points be too far apart. However, the channel introduces noise which results in the constellation points being recieved with error. If the points are too close together, it is impossible to correctly match the received points with the correct value in the constellation. We implemented constellation mapping with a home-cooked parser: it would examine every 2 or 4 bits (depending on the mapping), look up the current segment in a table and assign the next element in a new vector the corresponding constellation point.

4-bit constellation mapping

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16-point mapping
Bit Sequence Value Bit Sequence Value
0000 .354+.354j 1000 1
0001 .707 1001 .707+.707j
0010 .707j 1010 j
0011 -.354+.354j 1011 -.707+.707j
0100 -.707j 1100 -1
0101 .354-.354j 1101 -.707-.707j
0110 -.354-.354j 1110 -j
0111 -.707 1111 .707-.707j

16-point constellation

This is the 16-point constellation we used. It is an approximation of the V.29 16-QAM constellation (4 amplitudes, 8 phases).

Our related MATLAB functions: constmap.m , deconstmap.m

Home | Previous: Implementation | Next: Mirror/IFFT, De-Mirror/FFT

Questions & Answers

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The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
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Damian
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Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
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nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
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Anassong
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s. Reply
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s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
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Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
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carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
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Source:  OpenStax, Ece 301 projects fall 2003. OpenStax CNX. Jan 22, 2004 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10223/1.5
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