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26 capital letter of English alphabet : A, B, C, D, . . . . X, Y, Z

26 small letter of English alphabet : a, b, c, d, . . . .x, y, z

10 digits : 0, 1, . . . 9

Math operators : + - * / =<>

Other symbols : |, \, # , %, ~, . . . .

Key words

A keyword is an identifier which indicate a specific command. Keywords are also considered reserved words. You shouldn’t use them for any other purpose in a C program.

The most important keywords of Turbo C are

asm auto break case char const continue default
do double else enum extern float for goto
if int long register return short signed sizeof
static struct switch typedef union unsigned void volatile
while

Identifiers

Identifiers or names refer to a variety of things : functions; tag of structures, union and enumerations; member of structures or unions; enumeration constants; typedef names and objects. There are some restrictions on the names .

Names are made up of letters and digit; The first character must be a letter. The underscore “_” count as a letter; sometime it is useful for improving the readability of long variable names. For example, name unit_price is easier to understand than unitprice . However, don’t begin variable names with underscore, since library routines often use such names.

Upper and lower case are distinct, so x and X are different names. Traditional C practice use lower case for variable names, and all upper case for symbolic constant.

Only the first 31 characters are significant.

Keywords are reserved: you can’t use them as variable names.

Example The following names are valid

i, x, b55, max_val

and the following names are invalid

12w the first character is a digit
income tax use invalid character “ “
char char is a keyword

It is wise to choose variable names that are related to the purpose of the variable, for example, count_of_girls, MAXWORD.

Data types

Data is valuable resources of computers. Data may comprise numbers, text, images . . .

They belong to different data types.

In programming languages, a data type is a set of values and the operations on those values.

For example, int type is the set of 32-bit integers within the range -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647 together with the operations described in the following table.

Operations Symbol
Opposite -
Addition +
Subtraction -
Multiplication *
Division /
Modulus %
Equal to = =
Greater than >
Less than <

A data type can also be thought of as a constraint placed upon the interpretation of data in a type system in computer programming.

Common types of data in programming languages include primitive types (such as integers, floating point numbers or characters), tuples, records, algebraic data types, abstract data types, reference types, classes and function types. A data type describes representation, interpretation and structure of values manipulated by algorithms or objects stored in computer memory or other storage device. The type system uses data type information to check correctness of computer programs that access or manipulate the

data.

Constants

In general, a constant is a specific quantity that does not or cannot change or vary. A constant’s value is fixed at compile-time and cannot change during program execution. C supports three types of constants : numeric, character, string.

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to computer science. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10776/1.1
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