<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Institutional deposit mandates

In addition to funder mandates, there has been a gradual increase in institutional deposit mandates. Although the specifics vary by institution, institutional mandates grant an author’s host institution permission to make available the faculty member’s scholarly articles and to exercise the copyright in those articles, effectively granting the institution a non-exclusive license to distribute the article online. The Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences recently became the first U.S. faculty to mandate online deposit in an institutional repository. See (External Link) . However, there are currently about a dozen such mandates worldwide. See (External Link) .

Consortia sales and aggregations

Consortia sales, and participation in bundled collections and aggregations, raise a variety of issues pertaining to pricing, market coverage, primary subscription retention, and royalty or revenue allocations. The overview below should provide a society with perspective on the types of issues it is likely to confront. Other issues germane to participating in an online aggregation are described in Chapter Six.

Consortia and aggregation pricing

Participation in consortia sales programs and online journal aggregations can expand a journal’s reach into institutions that did not subscribe to the journal previously. However, for such participation to increase the journal’s net revenue it is necessary that the aggregator’s pricing protects the journal’s existing revenue base, and/or the incremental revenue generated offsets any revenue lost through discounting existing subscriptions (see “Online Access and Print Substitution,” in Chapter Four).

While publishers price titles for consortia sales in a variety of ways, there are two basic approaches:

  • Base-plus pricing, which prices a journal based on the consortium’s previous (typically print) holdings. For example, if a journal currently generates $20,000 in subscription revenue from consortium members, then the price for the entire consortium will represent an incremental percentage on top of the base amount.
  • Bundle discount pricing, which prices the offer as a volume discount off the total price of the participating titles. In this case, an aggregator offers groups of titles—often by subject category—at a discount, based on the number of journals in the bundle. The bundles sometimes include both a publisher’s own titles, as well as those licensed from other publishers, including societies.

Base-plus pricing is conservative in protecting a journal’s existing revenue, although the approach may forgo incremental revenue in the interest of that protection. Further, as it is based on a consortium’s holdings at a given time, such a pricing approach is inherently transitional and becomes unworkable as the collection or consortium grows. Dryburgh (2004) analyzes pricing approaches for journal aggregations based on interviews with eight publishers.

A bundled discount approach, as it does not reference the consortium’s previous holdings and spending level, may place a journal’s existing institutional revenue base at some risk. The extent of that risk will typically depend on the basis for the revenue allocation for the bundle (see below), as well as any protections or guarantees that the publisher offers to mitigate a journal’s initial risk in order to encourage participation.

Publishers typically combine other pricing criteria—including the number of participating institutions, total FTEs, and institution type—with these two basic approaches. Most publishers offer multiple pricing options for aggregations, suggesting continuing experimentation with consortia pricing models. For a breakdown of current consortium pricing practices by nonprofit publishers, see Cox and Cox (2008), 52-55.

Revenue allocation

Revenue allocations to individual titles from bundled sales are often based on usage, volume of content, individual title price (decreasingly), or some combination. The volume of content a journal makes available to the bundle helps drive the perceived value of the bundle over all (for example, in terms of number of articles or volume years in the collection). Using individual title prices has become less prevalent; although it protects journals with high prices, it doesn’t necessary align with the value-in-use perceived in the collection. The approach used will reflect the particular composition of each bundle, as well as the policies and approach of each publisher or aggregator.

In the case of a mature or niche journal, any aggregator claims to generating revenue from new core market subscriptions should be treated cautiously. If the aggregation is being offered to a specific, well-defined market not previously reached by the journal (for example, corporate or public library sales), or if the consortial market comprises institutions of a type not previously reached by the journal (e.g., small colleges or international institutions), then the effect—and the implications—are largely the same as those for tiered pricing. If a journal is relatively new and does not need to protect an existing print subscription base, the society may be in a position to be more aggressive in reaching markets.

Although a society is not obligated to include its journal in consortial deals or aggregations, many commercial publishers will encourage such participation, as the institutional market continues to exhibit a preference for consortial purchases of online journal aggregations. Whether an aggregation arrangement represents an equitable deal for the society inevitably depends on a host of variables that can only be assessed on a individual basis.

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
is this allso about nanoscale material
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get Jobilize Job Search Mobile App in your pocket Now!

Get it on Google Play Download on the App Store Now

Source:  OpenStax, Transitioning a society journal online: a guide to financial and strategic issues. OpenStax CNX. Aug 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11222/1.1
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Transitioning a society journal online: a guide to financial and strategic issues' conversation and receive update notifications?