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Institutional deposit mandates

In addition to funder mandates, there has been a gradual increase in institutional deposit mandates. Although the specifics vary by institution, institutional mandates grant an author’s host institution permission to make available the faculty member’s scholarly articles and to exercise the copyright in those articles, effectively granting the institution a non-exclusive license to distribute the article online. The Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences recently became the first U.S. faculty to mandate online deposit in an institutional repository. See (External Link) . However, there are currently about a dozen such mandates worldwide. See (External Link) .

Consortia sales and aggregations

Consortia sales, and participation in bundled collections and aggregations, raise a variety of issues pertaining to pricing, market coverage, primary subscription retention, and royalty or revenue allocations. The overview below should provide a society with perspective on the types of issues it is likely to confront. Other issues germane to participating in an online aggregation are described in Chapter Six.

Consortia and aggregation pricing

Participation in consortia sales programs and online journal aggregations can expand a journal’s reach into institutions that did not subscribe to the journal previously. However, for such participation to increase the journal’s net revenue it is necessary that the aggregator’s pricing protects the journal’s existing revenue base, and/or the incremental revenue generated offsets any revenue lost through discounting existing subscriptions (see “Online Access and Print Substitution,” in Chapter Four).

While publishers price titles for consortia sales in a variety of ways, there are two basic approaches:

  • Base-plus pricing, which prices a journal based on the consortium’s previous (typically print) holdings. For example, if a journal currently generates $20,000 in subscription revenue from consortium members, then the price for the entire consortium will represent an incremental percentage on top of the base amount.
  • Bundle discount pricing, which prices the offer as a volume discount off the total price of the participating titles. In this case, an aggregator offers groups of titles—often by subject category—at a discount, based on the number of journals in the bundle. The bundles sometimes include both a publisher’s own titles, as well as those licensed from other publishers, including societies.

Base-plus pricing is conservative in protecting a journal’s existing revenue, although the approach may forgo incremental revenue in the interest of that protection. Further, as it is based on a consortium’s holdings at a given time, such a pricing approach is inherently transitional and becomes unworkable as the collection or consortium grows. Dryburgh (2004) analyzes pricing approaches for journal aggregations based on interviews with eight publishers.

A bundled discount approach, as it does not reference the consortium’s previous holdings and spending level, may place a journal’s existing institutional revenue base at some risk. The extent of that risk will typically depend on the basis for the revenue allocation for the bundle (see below), as well as any protections or guarantees that the publisher offers to mitigate a journal’s initial risk in order to encourage participation.

Publishers typically combine other pricing criteria—including the number of participating institutions, total FTEs, and institution type—with these two basic approaches. Most publishers offer multiple pricing options for aggregations, suggesting continuing experimentation with consortia pricing models. For a breakdown of current consortium pricing practices by nonprofit publishers, see Cox and Cox (2008), 52-55.

Revenue allocation

Revenue allocations to individual titles from bundled sales are often based on usage, volume of content, individual title price (decreasingly), or some combination. The volume of content a journal makes available to the bundle helps drive the perceived value of the bundle over all (for example, in terms of number of articles or volume years in the collection). Using individual title prices has become less prevalent; although it protects journals with high prices, it doesn’t necessary align with the value-in-use perceived in the collection. The approach used will reflect the particular composition of each bundle, as well as the policies and approach of each publisher or aggregator.

In the case of a mature or niche journal, any aggregator claims to generating revenue from new core market subscriptions should be treated cautiously. If the aggregation is being offered to a specific, well-defined market not previously reached by the journal (for example, corporate or public library sales), or if the consortial market comprises institutions of a type not previously reached by the journal (e.g., small colleges or international institutions), then the effect—and the implications—are largely the same as those for tiered pricing. If a journal is relatively new and does not need to protect an existing print subscription base, the society may be in a position to be more aggressive in reaching markets.

Although a society is not obligated to include its journal in consortial deals or aggregations, many commercial publishers will encourage such participation, as the institutional market continues to exhibit a preference for consortial purchases of online journal aggregations. Whether an aggregation arrangement represents an equitable deal for the society inevitably depends on a host of variables that can only be assessed on a individual basis.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Transitioning a society journal online: a guide to financial and strategic issues. OpenStax CNX. Aug 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11222/1.1
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