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a primeira fase, que denominam de "Ilhas de recursos educacionais abertos", em que o potencial da abertura é reconhecido como uma caraterística da disponibilização livre dos recursos, ou seja, os REA são criados, utilizados e modificados por alguns atores dentro de uma organização;

a segunda fase, que apelidam de "Estratégia de recursos educacionais abertos", em que a utilização dos REA assume um papel mais relevante a nível organizacional, surgindo iniciativas para promover a sua utilização, a par da criação de políticas e repositórios;

a terceira fase, que designam de "Práticas educacionais abertas", em que se verifica uma maior utilização dos REA em cenários educacionais, com grande produção e partilha de conteúdos criados pelos estudantes, conteúdos estes que são validados através de estratégias de reflexão e validação por pares.

As PEA representam, assim, as práticas que se desenvolvem no âmbito de uma trajetória em relação ao grau de abertura, por um lado, da utilização dos recursos, e, por outro, dos modelos pedagógicos, o que permite às organizações e aos indivíduos posicionarem-se no respetivo contexto.

Considerações finais

As Práticas Educacionais Abertas definem-se como práticas colaborativas, em que os recursos são partilhados no contexto de práticas pedagógicas centradas na interação social, criação de conhecimento, aprendizagem com os pares e práticas de aprendizagem partilhadas.

No final do seu ciclo de trabalhos, o Consórcio OPAL lança alguns desafios, que constam no documento " Mainstreaming Open Educational Practice - Recommendations for Policy

http://cdn.efquel.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Policy_Support_OEP.pdf?a6409c

". De forma a contribuir para uma colaboração verdadeiramente aberta, o Consórcio reconhece que a maioria das iniciativas existentes estão, de certa forma, limitadas a um determinado tipo de instituição, com fronteiras geográficas, ou com outros tipos de limitações. As PEA, nomeadamente no que respeita à inovação global, são propícias para práticas de colaboração e partilha envolvendo vários tipos de stakeholders , pelo que o Consórcio lança, como desafio, que as iniciativas futuras de REA/PEA centrem a sua atenção em parcerias de âmbito mais abrangente, que envolvam uma maior diversidade de instituições e potenciem a criação de outros tipos de redes inovadoras, desenvolvendo comunidades de prática em torno de Práticas Educacionais Abertas.

Referências bibliográficas

Anderson, T. (2009 ). On open, distance, e-learning and other name confusion [Weblog post]. Disponível em: http://terrya.edublogs.org/2009/01/15/on-open-distance-e-learning-and-other-name-confusion/ . Acedido em 13/04/2013.

Atkins, D. E., Brown, J.,&Hammond, A. (2007). A Review of the Open Educational Resources (OER) Movement: Achievements, Challenges, and New Opportunities . Disponível em: http://www.hewlett.org/uploads/files/Hewlett_OER_report.pdf. Acedido em 20/09/2013 .

Conole, G.C.&Ehlers, U.D. (2010): Open Educational Practices: Unleashing the power of OER . Paper presented to UNESCO Workshop on OER in Namibia 2010. Windhoek. Disponível em: http://efquel.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/OEP_Unleashing-the-power-of-OER.pdf . Acedido em 20/09/2013.

Conole, G. (2012). Fostering social inclusion through open educational resources (OER), Distance Education , 33:2, 131-134. Disponível em: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01587919.2012.700563#.Um8G-4up1rx . Acedido em 06/09/2013.

Downes, S. (2011 ). Educational resources: A definition [Weblog post]. Disponível em: http://halfanhour.blogspot.ca/2011/07/open-educational-resources-defini­tion.html . Acedido em 13/04/2013.

Ehlers, U. D. (2011). From Open Educational Resources to Open Educational Practices. eLearning Papers , 23 (March), 1–8. Disponível em http://www.elearningeuropa.info/files/media/media25231.pdf . Acedido em 13/04/2013 .

Materu, P. (2004). Open Source Courseware: A Baseline Study . Washington: The World Bank. Disponível em: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTAFRREGTOPTEIA/Resources/open_source_courseware.pdf. Acedido em 05/09/2013 .

Mulder, A. (2011). Open Educational Resources and the Role of the University, Educause Review Magazine . 46 (5). Disponível em: http://www.educause.edu/ero/educause-review-magazine-volume-46-number-5-septemberoctober-2011 . Acedido em 23/04/2013.

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (2007). Giving knowl­edge for free: The emergence of open educational resources . Paris: Centre for Educational Research and Innovation, OECD. Disponível em: http://www.oecd.org/edu/ceri/38654317.pdf. Acedido em 30/04/2013.

UNESCO (2002). Forum on the impact of open courseware for higher education in developing countries: final report . Paris: UNESCO. Disponível em: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001285/128515e.pdf . Acedido em 25/04/2013.

Weller, M. (2012). The openness-creativity cycle in education. Journal Of Interactive Media In Education, 2012 (01). Disponível em: http://jime.open.ac.uk/jime/article/view/2012-02 Acedido em 29/09/2013.

Wiley, D., Hilton J. (2009). Openness, Dynamic Specialization, and the Disaggregated Future of Higher Education. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning , Vol 10, No 5. Disponível em: http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/768 Acedido em 19/03/2013 .

Yuan, L.&Powell, S. (2013). MOOCs and Open Education: Implications for Higher Education . JISC: CETIS. Disponível em http://publications.cetis.ac.uk/2013/667 . Acedido em 23/09/2013.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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