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b.      2. Show the binary tree representation following Return B.





Consider a buddy system in which a particular block under the current allocation has an address of 011011110000.


a.       If the block is of size 4, what is the binary address of its buddy?

            If the block is of size 4, the binary address of its buddy is 011011110100


b.      2. If the block is of size 16, what is the binary address of its buddy?

If the block is of size 16, the binary address of its buddy is 011011100000.


Consider a simple paging system with the following parameters: 232 bytes of physical memory; page size of 210 bytes; 216 pages of logical address space.


a.       How many bits are in a logical address?

The number of bytes in the logical address space is (216 pages) * (210 bytes/page) = 226 bytes. Therefore, 26 bits are required for the logical address.


b.      How many bytes in a frame?

A frame is the same size as a page, 210 bytes.


c.       How many bits in the physical address specify the frame?

The number of frames in main memory is (232 bytes of main memory)/(210 bytes/frame) = 222 frames. So 22 bits is needed to specify the frame.

d.      How many entries in the page table?

There is one entry for each page in the logical address space. Therefore there are 216 entries.


e.       How many bits in each page table entry? Assume each page table entry includes a valid/invalid bit.

In addition to the valid/invalid bit, 22 bits are needed to specify the frame location in main memory, for a total of 23 bits.


Consider a paged virtual memory system with 32-bit virtual addresses and 1kb pages. each page table entry requires 32 bits. it is desired to limit the page table size to one page.

a.       How many levels of page tables are required?

Virtual memory can hold (232 bytes of main memory)/( 210 bytes/page) = 222 pages, so 22 bits are needed to specify a page in virtual memory. Each page table contains (210 bytes per page table)/(4 bytes/entry) = 28 entries. Thus, each page table can handle 8 of the required 22 bits. Therefore, 3 levels of page tables are needed.


b.      What is the size of the page table at each level? Hint: One page table size is smaller.

Tables at two of the levels have 28 entries; tables at one level have 26 entries. (8 + 8 + 6 = 22).


c.       The smaller page size could be used at the top level or the bottom level of the page table hierarchy. Which strategy consumes the least number of pages?

 Less space is consumed if the top level has 26 entries. In that case, the second level has 26 pages with 28 entries each, and the bottom level has 214 pages with 28 entries each, for a total of 1 + 26 + 214 pages = 16,449 pages. If the middle level has 26 entries, then the number of pages is 1 + 28 + 214 pages = 16,641 pages. If the bottom level has 26 entries, then the number of tables is 1 + 28 + 216 pages = 65,973 pages.


A process has four page frames allocated to it. (all the following numbers are decimal, and everything is numbered starting from zero.) the time of the last loading of a page into each page frame, the last access to the page in each page frame, the virtual page number in each page frame, and the referenced (r) and modified (m) bits for each page frame are as shown (the times are in clock ticks from the process start at time 0 to the event -- not the number o fticks since the event to the present).

      Virtual Page Number          Page Frame      Time Loaded    Time Referenced          R Bit    M Bit

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Operating systems. OpenStax CNX. Aug 13, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10785/1.2
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