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The most important feature of Linux, however, was not technical but sociological. Until the Linux development,everyone believed that any software as complex as an operating system had to be developed in a carefully coordinated way by arelatively small, tightly-knit group of people. … Linux evolved in a completely different way. From nearly the beginning, it wasrather casually hacked on by huge numbers of volunteers coordinating only through the Internet. Quality was maintained notby rigid standards or autocracy but by the naively simple strategy of releasing every week and getting feedback from hundreds of userswithin days, creating a sort of rapid Darwinian selection on the mutations introduced by developers. To the amazement of almosteveryone, this worked quite well. … I expect the open-source movement to have essentially won its point about software withinthree to five years (that is, by 2003-05). … At that point it will become more appropriate to try to leverage open-source insights inwider domains. [Raymond p. 194]

In addition to a common framework for developing the software, what makes open-source software projectswork is a common legal vocabulary for sharing software called an open-source license. The primal example is the General Public License (GPL) developed by Richard Stallman for the GNU project. Without the open-source license enabling anyone to use and modifythe software, it would be impossible to build a community of programmers. For more, see the papers by Stallman, Raymond, Boyle,Lessig, and others.

To power the digital commons, a number of open-content licenses have been developed for informationresources, the most applicable to our needs being the Creative Commons license. An open-licensed digital commons turns the current intellectual property regime of publishing on its head. Now, anauthor can retain their copyright to their work and license it non-exclusively for use in the digital commons via a CreativeCommons license. This allows other authors to adapt, improve, orotherwise contribute to the work (for example, fixing broken hyperlinks that plague the WWW today). This can be carried to theextreme with an open-licensed wiki system. For example, in Wikipedia (wikipedia.org) anyone in the world can contribute and edit encyclopedia entries with a click in their browser.

Connexions: a digital commons for teaching and learning

The real roles of the professor in an information-rich world will be not to provide information but toadvise, guide, and encourage students wading through the deep waters of the information flood. Professors in this environmentwill thrive as mentors, tutors, backseat drivers, and coaches. [O’Donnell, p. 156]

To make things concrete, we now describe one particular experiment in this third wave of information technologytargeted at education. Connexions ( (External Link) ) is so-called because it aims to connect information and ideas withinthe commons (using hypertext) and also to connect the people using the system into communities. Connexions is inter-disciplinary,inter-institutional and involves both professionals and amateurs, as well as professors, teachers, students, and the public.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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