# 0.4 Connecting lines

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## Rationale

OK, so now we have a (relatively) clean image of the cell’s borders. Can we run an edge detector now you ask…? Hold your horses, Champ, we still have a ways to go…

Although it may make sense to run an edge detector at this point, seeing as we’ve got ourselves an image where the cell borders are definitely distinguishable, there is still a problem. Edge detectors look for changes in the gradient. Since our image was acquired utilizing optical fibers, our cell borders are not really solid lines quite yet; they are merely groups of small dots which, together, make up the cell borders. If an edge detector were utilized at this point, it would pick up each fiber optic probe, rather than the cell border we want. There no need to despair; there is a solution for all this!

## Mode filtering

Although it may not be as simple as those connect-the-dots books we’re used to, mode filtering can be an effective method of forming solid cell borders. The basic idea is this: if we used sliding neighborhood operations again, but rather than look for the mean, look for the mode, we may be able to connect all our little dots together! Why is this? Well, the mode filter we implemented works like this:

• Take a neighborhood of size [N M]
• Find the mean of the entries in the matrix.
• Since the image is in black and white, if the mean is greater than .5, then there are more ones, otherwise, there are more zeros. This is basically determining the mode of the neighborhood.
• Thus, if the mode is 1, set the pixel to 1. If the mode is 0, set the pixel to 0.

How does this connect the lines? Think about this: we want to establish solid cell borders by turning ON the black pixels which are part of the cell’s border. Thus, we want to turn ON black pixels which are near groups of white pixels which make up the cell borders and keep black pixels which are not part of the cell borders (in areas with relatively few white pixels) OFF. Taking the mode of each pixel’s neighborhood will accomplish this since black pixels near large groups of white pixels will be turned on and the following image shows what begins to look like solid cell borders… (Figure 1)

#### Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
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