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Another science-related foreign policy initiative of the Kennedy administration in India survived, however. The United States accepted the Indian invitation to “adopt” one of five new Indian Institutes of Technology, and the U.S. adopted IIT/Kanpur. Under contract with USAID, the United States assembled a consortium of American universities led by MIT to send scientific experts to IIT/Kanpur, which would develop into one of the premier institutes of higher education in India. The American effort in India was part of a broader program focused on developing countries as a means of countering Soviet influence in the Third World.

Congressional initiatives

Both houses of Congress took steps in reaction to Sputnik to improve their oversight of executive-branch science policy, particularly with respect to space. In July 1958, the Senate established a Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, and the House of Representatives established a Committee on Science and Astronautics. (In 1973, the latter committee would be renamed the Committee on Science and Technology.) Possibly because of its broader substantive scope, the House committee proved to be the more effective over the years in helping to shape national science policy. U.S. House of Representatives, Towards the Endless Frontier: History of the Committee on Science and Technology, 1959-79 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1980).

The post-Sputnik surge of public interest and concern about science led to another abortive attempt to establish a unitary, institutional federal base for the development and implementation of American policy. Senator Hubert H. Humphrey (D-MN) introduced legislation to establish a cabinet-level Department of Science and Technology that would have included the NSF, AEC, NASA, and the National Bureau of Standards. Humphrey’s legislation failed in large measure because of opposition by the scientific establishment.

Following the creation of the Office of Science and Technology, Congress gained a measure of access to the presidential science advisory system. Although relations between the science advisor, OST, and the corresponding congressional oversight committees remained cordial throughout the remainder of the Kennedy administration, Congress—particularly the House of Representatives—continued to assert its own independent perspective. A series of hearings beginning in October 1963, organized by the Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Development of the House Committee on Science and Astronautics under the chairmanship of Emilio Q. Daddario (D-CT), sought to “identify problems in the Government-science relationship and to assign priorities for dealing with them.” U.S. Congress, House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Development, Towards a Science Policy for the United States . Committee Report, 91 st Congress, 2 nd Session, October 1970. Their principal lasting result was to establish the House Committee on Science and Astronautics, and particularly its Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Development, as an effective participant in the development of U.S science policy. In 1965, the subcommittee began a series of hearings focused on the NSF, which led to the first substantive amendments in 1968 to the NSF Act of 1950. The most significant outcomes of these hearings explicitly included the social sciences among disciplines qualifying for NSF support, and gave the NSF authority to support applied as well as basic research.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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