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Limitations

The sample selected did not include all of the Principal License Completers (PLCs) from 2007-08 and 2008-09, let alone PLCs from other colleges in Ohio or other parts of the country. Although the sample included a random selection of PLCs from five centers, including three centers in or near urban settings, results from this second year of this longitudinal study could be confirmed or argued against by sampling PLCs from other universities.

Reliability and validity are generally a concern with survey designs, especially where the survey instrument has to be created, which was the case with this study. A test for stability reliability was conducted, but there was no test for internal consistency reliability. Although considerable effort was made to construct clear, concise, commonly-understood survey statements and response explanations, the participants may not have all interpreted them the same way. Conducting several interviews and comparing the results may have improved reliability. In any self-reporting survey instrument, validity of the results is an issue. The survey responses may not have identified the real thoughts and feelings of the participating PLCs. Only the participants themselves know for certain whether their responses validly represent their real feelings. However, since there was no threat to the participants—for example, professors lowering grades because of negative feedback—in all likelihood, their responses accurately reflect their feelings, at least at this time in their careers.

Conclusion

Our faculty are not satisfied with the fact that this sample of principal license completers indicates such a weak commitment (neutral score) to accepting a principalship in a low-performing school, even with a 20% bonus above the principal salary. The overall Likert score was 3.05, where “5” meant strong agreement, “4” meant agreement, and “3” was neutral, neither agree or disagree. If this is true for other principal preparation programs around the state and nation, the likelihood of significantly increasing the quality and quantity of principals for low-performing schools seems very small. It is true that we can find ways to build on the few “outliers” for agreeing to this bonus incentive in this study, for example, females with 8-10 years of teaching experience. As discussed in a recent department meeting involving a number of faculty members who had experience working as principals in low-performing schools, including the author of this paper, we must develop new instructional practices and materials that better explain the many positives that come from successful turnaround challenges. To a person, we described those past principal experiences in low-performing schools as the most meaningful, growth-producing, efficacy-building, and personally rewarding experiences of our education careers. We need to inspire our students with those stories.

Implications for further research

EDAD faculty can seek answers from PLCs to many questions in the coming years of this 10-year, longitudinal study. For example, we can seek responses related to how their opinions and suggestions change as they obtain principal experience or take a different principalship. It will certainly give us an ongoing picture of where PLCs are employed and what their job assignments are. They will also be an excellent source of feedback regarding changes made in our principal preparation program.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review special issue: portland conference, volume 12, number 3 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Oct 17, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11362/1.5
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