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Program development is the final phase in the high quality assessment process. Among other things, this involves a close examination of achievement results to see if there might be evidence of unintended bias related to how the assessment was designed and written. Analysis of student outcomes and interpretation of the patterns of performance that emerge engage faculty in dialogue about the interrelationships among curriculum, instruction and assessment. These conversations inform the re-design phase as the next cycle of high quality assessment begins.


This chapter described high quality assessment practices associated with the design of performance assessments based on standards for Educational Leadership. Based on our experience at EMU, the process is involved and time-consuming but we have found that the payoff regarding program development is worth it in the end.

Some professors of educational leadership will engage in this work because they value performance assessment and believe it is the right thing to do. Others will do it because it is mandated by accreditation agencies or institutional policy. Regardless of the motivation for one’s engagement, we firmly believe the work should be of high quality. This overview of one strategy for designing performance assessment is an attempt to point us in that direction.


Council of Chief State School Officers. (2008). Educational leadership policy standards: ISLLC 2008 . Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved May 23, 2008, from (External Link)

Sanders, N. M.,&Kearney, K. M. (Eds.). (2008). Performance expectations and indicators for education leaders: An ISLLC-based guide to implementing leader standards and a companion guide to the educational leadership policy standards: ISLLC 2008 . Washington, DC: State Consortium on Education Leadership, Council of Chief State School Officers. Retrieved June 9, 2008, from (External Link)

Squires, D. A. (2005). Aligning and balancing the standards based curriculum . Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.


Excerpt from: Performance expectations and indicators for education leaders: An ISLLC-based guide to implementing leader standards and a common guide to the educational leadership policy standards.

Performance Expectation 2: Teaching and Learning

Education leaders ensure achievement and success of all students by monitoring and continuously improving teaching and learning.

Dispositions exemplified in Expectation 2:

Education leaders believe in, value, and are committed to

  • Learning as the fundamental purpose of school
  • Diversity as an asset
  • Continuous professional growth and development
  • Livelong learning
  • Collaboration with all stakeholders
  • High expectations for all
  • Student learning


A strong, positive, professional culture fosters learning by all educators and students. In a strong professional culture, leaders share and distribute responsibilities to provide quality, effectiveness, and coherence across all components of the instructional system (such as curriculum, instructional materials, pedagogy, and student assessment). Leaders are responsible for a professional culture in which learning opportunities are targeted to the vision and goals and differentiated appropriately to meet the needs of every student. Leaders need knowledge, skills, and beliefs that provide equitable differentiation of instruction and curriculum materials to be effective with a range of student characteristics, needs, and achievement.

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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