# 27.8 Polarization  (Page 6/19)

 Page 6 / 19

Glass and plastic become optically active when stressed; the greater the stress, the greater the effect. Optical stress analysis on complicated shapes can be performed by making plastic models of them and observing them through crossed filters, as seen in [link] . It is apparent that the effect depends on wavelength as well as stress. The wavelength dependence is sometimes also used for artistic purposes.

Another interesting phenomenon associated with polarized light is the ability of some crystals to split an unpolarized beam of light into two. Such crystals are said to be birefringent    (see [link] ). Each of the separated rays has a specific polarization. One behaves normally and is called the ordinary ray, whereas the other does not obey Snell’s law and is called the extraordinary ray. Birefringent crystals can be used to produce polarized beams from unpolarized light. Some birefringent materials preferentially absorb one of the polarizations. These materials are called dichroic and can produce polarization by this preferential absorption. This is fundamentally how polarizing filters and other polarizers work. The interested reader is invited to further pursue the numerous properties of materials related to polarization.

## Section summary

• Polarization is the attribute that wave oscillations have a definite direction relative to the direction of propagation of the wave.
• EM waves are transverse waves that may be polarized.
• The direction of polarization is defined to be the direction parallel to the electric field of the EM wave.
• Unpolarized light is composed of many rays having random polarization directions.
• Light can be polarized by passing it through a polarizing filter or other polarizing material. The intensity $I$ of polarized light after passing through a polarizing filter is $I={I}_{0}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{cos}}^{2}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\mathrm{\theta ,}$ where ${I}_{0}$ is the original intensity and $\theta$ is the angle between the direction of polarization and the axis of the filter.
• Polarization is also produced by reflection.
• Brewster’s law states that reflected light will be completely polarized at the angle of reflection ${\theta }_{\text{b}}$ , known as Brewster’s angle, given by a statement known as Brewster’s law: $\text{tan}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\theta }_{\text{b}}=\frac{{n}_{2}}{{n}_{1}}$ , where ${n}_{1}$ is the medium in which the incident and reflected light travel and ${n}_{2}$ is the index of refraction of the medium that forms the interface that reflects the light.
• Polarization can also be produced by scattering.
• There are a number of types of optically active substances that rotate the direction of polarization of light passing through them.

## Conceptual questions

Under what circumstances is the phase of light changed by reflection? Is the phase related to polarization?

how do you calculate the 5% uncertainty of 4cm?
4cm/100×5= 0.2cm
haider
how do you calculate the 5% absolute uncertainty of a 200g mass?
= 200g±(5%)10g
haider
use the 10g as the uncertainty?
melia
haider
topic of question?
haider
the relationship between the applied force and the deflection
melia
sorry wrong question i meant the 5% uncertainty of 4cm?
melia
its 0.2 cm or 2mm
haider
thank you
melia
Hello group...
Chioma
hi
haider
well hello there
sean
the meaning of phrase in physics
is the meaning of phrase in physics
Chovwe
write an expression for a plane progressive wave moving from left to right along x axis and having amplitude 0.02m, frequency of 650Hz and speed if 680ms-¹
how does a model differ from a theory
To use the vocabulary of model theory and meta-logic, a theory is a set of sentences which can be derived from a formal model using some rule of inference (usually just modus ponens). So, for example, Number Theory is the set of sentences true about numbers. But the model is a structure together wit
Jesilda
with an iterpretation.
Jesilda
what is vector quantity
Vector quality have both direction and magnitude, such as Force, displacement, acceleration and etc.
Besmellah
Is the force attractive or repulsive between the hot and neutral lines hung from power poles? Why?
what's electromagnetic induction
electromagnetic induction is a process in which conductor is put in a particular position and magnetic field keeps varying.
Lukman
wow great
Salaudeen
what is mutual induction?
je
mutual induction can be define as the current flowing in one coil that induces a voltage in an adjacent coil.
Johnson
how to undergo polarization
show that a particle moving under the influence of an attractive force mu/y³ towards the axis x. show that if it be projected from the point (0,k) with the component velocities U and V parallel to the axis of x and y, it will not strike the axis of x unless u>v²k² and distance uk²/√u-vk as origin
show that a particle moving under the influence of an attractive force mu/y^3 towards the axis x. show that if it be projected from the point (0,k) with the component velocities U and V parallel to the axis of x and y, it will not strike the axis of x unless u>v^2k^2 and distance uk^2/√u-k as origin
No idea.... Are you even sure this question exist?
Mavis
I can't even understand the question
yes it was an assignment question "^"represent raise to power pls
Gabriel
Gabriel
An engineer builds two simple pendula. Both are suspended from small wires secured to the ceiling of a room. Each pendulum hovers 2 cm above the floor. Pendulum 1 has a bob with a mass of 10kg . Pendulum 2 has a bob with a mass of 100 kg . Describe how the motion of the pendula will differ if the bobs are both displaced by 12º .
no ideas
Augstine
if u at an angle of 12 degrees their period will be same so as their velocity, that means they both move simultaneously since both both hovers at same length meaning they have the same length
Modern cars are made of materials that make them collapsible upon collision. Explain using physics concept (Force and impulse), how these car designs help with the safety of passengers.
calculate the force due to surface tension required to support a column liquid in a capillary tube 5mm. If the capillary tube is dipped into a beaker of water
find the time required for a train Half a Kilometre long to cross a bridge almost kilometre long racing at 100km/h
method of polarization
Ajayi
What is atomic number?
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Deborah