# 21.2 Electromotive force: terminal voltage  (Page 8/13)

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## Section summary

• All voltage sources have two fundamental parts—a source of electrical energy that has a characteristic electromotive force (emf), and an internal resistance $r$ .
• The emf is the potential difference of a source when no current is flowing.
• The numerical value of the emf depends on the source of potential difference.
• The internal resistance $r$ of a voltage source affects the output voltage when a current flows.
• The voltage output of a device is called its terminal voltage $V$ and is given by $V=\text{emf}-\text{Ir}$ , where $I$ is the electric current and is positive when flowing away from the positive terminal of the voltage source.
• When multiple voltage sources are in series, their internal resistances add and their emfs add algebraically.
• Solar cells can be wired in series or parallel to provide increased voltage or current, respectively.

## Conceptual questions

Is every emf a potential difference? Is every potential difference an emf? Explain.

Explain which battery is doing the charging and which is being charged in [link] .

Given a battery, an assortment of resistors, and a variety of voltage and current measuring devices, describe how you would determine the internal resistance of the battery.

Two different 12-V automobile batteries on a store shelf are rated at 600 and 850 “cold cranking amps.” Which has the smallest internal resistance?

What are the advantages and disadvantages of connecting batteries in series? In parallel?

Semitractor trucks use four large 12-V batteries. The starter system requires 24 V, while normal operation of the truck’s other electrical components utilizes 12 V. How could the four batteries be connected to produce 24 V? To produce 12 V? Why is 24 V better than 12 V for starting the truck’s engine (a very heavy load)?

## Problem exercises

Standard automobile batteries have six lead-acid cells in series, creating a total emf of 12.0 V. What is the emf of an individual lead-acid cell?

2.00 V

Carbon-zinc dry cells (sometimes referred to as non-alkaline cells) have an emf of 1.54 V, and they are produced as single cells or in various combinations to form other voltages. (a) How many 1.54-V cells are needed to make the common 9-V battery used in many small electronic devices? (b) What is the actual emf of the approximately 9-V battery? (c) Discuss how internal resistance in the series connection of cells will affect the terminal voltage of this approximately 9-V battery.

What is the output voltage of a 3.0000-V lithium cell in a digital wristwatch that draws 0.300 mA, if the cell’s internal resistance is $2\text{.}\text{00}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\Omega$ ?

2.9994 V

(a) What is the terminal voltage of a large 1.54-V carbon-zinc dry cell used in a physics lab to supply 2.00 A to a circuit, if the cell’s internal resistance is $0\text{.}\text{100 Ω}$ ? (b) How much electrical power does the cell produce? (c) What power goes to its load?

What is the internal resistance of an automobile battery that has an emf of 12.0 V and a terminal voltage of 15.0 V while a current of 8.00 A is charging it?

$0\text{.}\text{375}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\Omega$

(a) Find the terminal voltage of a 12.0-V motorcycle battery having a $0\text{.}\text{600-Ω}$ internal resistance, if it is being charged by a current of 10.0 A. (b) What is the output voltage of the battery charger?

an 8.0 capacitor is connected by to the terminals of 60Hz whoes rms voltage is 150v. a.find the capacity reactance and rms to the circuit
thanks so much. i undersooth well
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is the study of matter in relation to energy
Kintu
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power P = Work done per second W/ t. It means the more power, the stronger machine
Sphere
e.g. heart Uses 2 W per beat.
Rohit
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did you solve?
Shii
1.75cm
Ridwan
my name is Abu m.konnek I am a student of a electrical engineer and I want you to help me
Abu
the magnification k = f/(f-d) with focus f = R/2 =16 cm; d =12 cm k = 16/4 =4
Sphere
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hi
Godfred
Godfred
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the same behavior thru the prism out or in water bud abbot
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If this will experimented with a hollow(vaccum) prism in water then what will be result ?
Anurag
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What is the far point of a person whose eyes have a relaxed power of 50.5 D?
Jaydie
What is the far point of a person whose eyes have a relaxed power of 50.5 D?
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29/20 ? maybes
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try to read several books on phy don't just rely one. some authors explain better than other.
Ju
And don't forget to check out YouTube videos on the subject. Videos offer a different visual way to learn easier.
Ju
hope that helps
Ju
I have a exam on 12 february
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Jiti
the speed of something in a given direction.
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Mahmud
it is also a property of vector quantities
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