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Phet explorations: generator

Generate electricity with a bar magnet! Discover the physics behind the phenomena by exploring magnets and how you can use them to make a bulb light.

Generator

Section summary

  • Direct current (DC) is the flow of electric current in only one direction. It refers to systems where the source voltage is constant.
  • The voltage source of an alternating current (AC) system puts out V = V 0 sin 2 π ft size 12{V = V rSub { size 8{0} } "sin2"π ital "ft"} {} , where V size 12{V} {} is the voltage at time t size 12{t} {} , V 0 size 12{V rSub { size 8{0} } } {} is the peak voltage, and f size 12{f} {} is the frequency in hertz.
  • In a simple circuit, I = V/R size 12{I = ital "V/R"} {} and AC current is I = I 0 sin 2 π ft size 12{I = I rSub { size 8{0} } "sin2"π ital "ft"} {} , where I size 12{I} {} is the current at time t size 12{t} {} , and I 0 = V 0 /R size 12{I rSub { size 8{0} } = V rSub { size 8{0} } ital "/R"} {} is the peak current.
  • The average AC power is P ave = 1 2 I 0 V 0 size 12{P rSub { size 8{"ave"} } = { {1} over {2} } I rSub { size 8{0} } V rSub { size 8{0} } } {} .
  • Average (rms) current I rms size 12{I rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} and average (rms) voltage V rms size 12{V rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} are I rms = I 0 2 size 12{I rSub { size 8{"rms"} } = { {I rSub { size 8{0} } } over { sqrt {2} } } } {} and V rms = V 0 2 size 12{V rSub { size 8{"rms"} } = { {V rSub { size 8{0} } } over { sqrt {2} } } } {} , where rms stands for root mean square.
  • Thus, P ave = I rms V rms size 12{P rSub { size 8{"ave"} } = I rSub { size 8{"rms"} } V rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} .
  • Ohm’s law for AC is I rms = V rms R size 12{I rSub { size 8{"rms"} } = { {V rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } over {R} } } {} .
  • Expressions for the average power of an AC circuit are P ave = I rms V rms , P ave = V rms 2 R , and P ave = I rms 2 R , analogous to the expressions for DC circuits.

Conceptual questions

Give an example of a use of AC power other than in the household. Similarly, give an example of a use of DC power other than that supplied by batteries.

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Why do voltage, current, and power go through zero 120 times per second for 60-Hz AC electricity?

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You are riding in a train, gazing into the distance through its window. As close objects streak by, you notice that the nearby fluorescent lights make dashed streaks. Explain.

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Problem exercises

(a) What is the hot resistance of a 25-W light bulb that runs on 120-V AC? (b) If the bulb’s operating temperature is 2700º C , what is its resistance at 2600º C ?

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Certain heavy industrial equipment uses AC power that has a peak voltage of 679 V. What is the rms voltage?

480 V

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A certain circuit breaker trips when the rms current is 15.0 A. What is the corresponding peak current?

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Military aircraft use 400-Hz AC power, because it is possible to design lighter-weight equipment at this higher frequency. What is the time for one complete cycle of this power?

2.50 ms

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A North American tourist takes his 25.0-W, 120-V AC razor to Europe, finds a special adapter, and plugs it into 240 V AC. Assuming constant resistance, what power does the razor consume as it is ruined?

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In this problem, you will verify statements made at the end of the power losses for [link] . (a) What current is needed to transmit 100 MW of power at a voltage of 25.0 kV? (b) Find the power loss in a 1 . 00 - Ω size 12{1 "." "00"- %OMEGA } {} transmission line. (c) What percent loss does this represent?

(a) 4.00 kA

(b) 16.0 MW

(c) 16.0%

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A small office-building air conditioner operates on 408-V AC and consumes 50.0 kW. (a) What is its effective resistance? (b) What is the cost of running the air conditioner during a hot summer month when it is on 8.00 h per day for 30 days and electricity costs 9.00 cents /kW h size 12{9 "." "00"" cents/kw" cdot h} {} ?

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What is the peak power consumption of a 120-V AC microwave oven that draws 10.0 A?

2.40 kW

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What is the peak current through a 500-W room heater that operates on 120-V AC power?

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Two different electrical devices have the same power consumption, but one is meant to be operated on 120-V AC and the other on 240-V AC. (a) What is the ratio of their resistances? (b) What is the ratio of their currents? (c) Assuming its resistance is unaffected, by what factor will the power increase if a 120-V AC device is connected to 240-V AC?

(a) 4.0

(b) 0.50

(c) 4.0

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Nichrome wire is used in some radiative heaters. (a) Find the resistance needed if the average power output is to be 1.00 kW utilizing 120-V AC. (b) What length of Nichrome wire, having a cross-sectional area of 5.00 mm 2 size 12{5 "." "00"" mm" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} , is needed if the operating temperature is 500º C size 12{"500"°C} {} ? (c) What power will it draw when first switched on?

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Find the time after t = 0 size 12{t=0} {} when the instantaneous voltage of 60-Hz AC first reaches the following values: (a) V 0 / 2 size 12{V rSub { size 8{0} } /2} {} (b) V 0 size 12{V rSub { size 8{0} } } {} (c) 0.

(a) 1.39 ms

(b) 4.17 ms

(c) 8.33 ms

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(a) At what two times in the first period following t = 0 size 12{t=0} {} does the instantaneous voltage in 60-Hz AC equal V rms size 12{V rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} ? (b) V rms size 12{-V rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} ?

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Questions & Answers

what is distance?
Jonathan Reply
What does mean ohms law imply
Victoria Reply
what is matter
folajin Reply
Anything that occupies space
Kevin
Any thing that has weight and occupies space
Victoria
Anything which we can feel by any of our 5 sense organs
Suraj
Right
Roben
thanks
Suraj
what is a sulphate
Alo
any answers
Alo
the time rate of increase in velocity is called
Blessing Reply
acceleration
Emma
What is uniform velocity
Victoria
Greetings,users of that wonderful app.
Frank Reply
how to solve pressure?
Cruz Reply
how do we calculate weight and eara eg an elefant that weight 2000kg has four fits or legs search of surface eara is 0.1m2(1metre square) incontact with the ground=10m2(g =10m2)
Cruz
P=F/A
Mira
can someone derive the formula a little bit deeper?
Bern
what is coplanar force?
OLADITI Reply
what is accuracy and precision
Peace Reply
How does a current follow?
Vineeta Reply
follow?
akif
which one dc or ac current.
akif
how does a current following?
Vineeta
?
akif
AC current
Vineeta
AC current follows due to changing electric field and magnetic field.
akif
you guys are just saying follow is flow not follow please
Abubakar
ok bro thanks
akif
flows
Abubakar
but i wanted to understand him/her in his own language
akif
but I think the statement is written in English not any other language
Abubakar
my mean that in which form he/she written this,will understand better in this form, i write.
akif
ok
Abubakar
ok thanks bro. my mistake
Vineeta
u are welcome
Abubakar
what is a semiconductor
Vineeta Reply
substances having lower forbidden gap between valence band and conduction band
akif
what is a conductor?
Vineeta
replace lower by higher only
akif
convert 56°c to kelvin
Abubakar
How does a current follow?
Vineeta
A semiconductor is any material whose conduction lies between that of a conductor and an insulator.
AKOWUAH
what is Atom? what is molecules? what is ions?
Abubakar Reply
What is a molecule
Samuel Reply
Is a unit of a compound that has two or more atoms either of the same or different atoms
Justice
A molecule is the smallest indivisible unit of a compound, Just like the atom is the smallest indivisible unit of an element.
Rachel
what is a molecule?
Vineeta
what is a vector
smith Reply
A quantity that has both a magnitude AND a direction. E.g velocity, acceleration, force are all vector quantities. Hope this helps :)
deage
what is the difference between velocity and relative velocity?
Mackson
Velocity is the rate of change of displacement with time. Relative velocity on the other hand is the velocity observed by an observer with respect to a reference point.
Chuks
what do u understand by Ultraviolet catastrophe?
Rufai
A certain freely falling object, released from rest, requires 1.5seconds to travel the last 30metres before it hits the ground. (a) Find the velocity of the object when it is 30metres above the ground.
Mackson
A vector is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction
Rufus
the velocity Is 20m/s-2
Rufus
derivation of electric potential
Rugunda Reply
V = Er = (kq/r^2)×r V = kq/r Where V: electric potential.
Chuks
what is the difference between simple motion and simple harmonic motion ?
syed
hi
Peace
hi
Rufus
hi
Chip
simple harmonic motion is a motion of tro and fro of simple pendulum and the likes while simple motion is a linear motion on a straight line.
Muinat
a body acceleration uniform from rest a 6m/s -2 for 8sec and decelerate uniformly to rest in the next 5sec,the magnitude of the deceleration is ?
Patricia Reply
The wording not very clear kindly
Moses
6
Leo
9.6m/s2
Jolly
the magnitude of deceleration =-9.8ms-2. first find the final velocity using the known acceleration and time. next use the calculated velocity to find the size of deceleration.
Mackson
wrong
Peace
-3.4m/s-2
Justice
Hi
Abj
Firstly, calculate final velocity of the body and then the deceleration. The final ans is,-9.6ms-2
Muinat
8x6= 48m/-2 use v=u + at 48÷5=9.6
Lawrence
Practice Key Terms 6

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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