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The graphs of position, velocity, and acceleration vs. time for the trains in [link] and [link] are displayed in [link] . (We have taken the velocity to remain constant from 20 to 40 s, after which the train decelerates.)

Three graphs. The first is a line graph of position in meters versus time in seconds. The line begins at the origin and has a concave up shape from time equals zero to time equals twenty seconds. It is straight with a positive slope from twenty seconds to forty seconds. It is then convex up from forty to fifty seconds. The second graph is a line graph of velocity in meters per second versus time in seconds. The line is straight with a positive slope beginning at the origin from 0 to twenty seconds. It is flat from twenty to forty seconds. From forty to fifty seconds the line is straight with a negative slope back down to a velocity of 0. The third graph is a line graph of acceleration in meters per second per second versus time in seconds. The line is flat with a positive constant acceleration from zero to twenty seconds. The line then drops to an acceleration of 0 from twenty to forty seconds. The line drops again to a negative acceleration from forty to fifty seconds.
(a) Position of the train over time. Notice that the train’s position changes slowly at the beginning of the journey, then more and more quickly as it picks up speed. Its position then changes more slowly as it slows down at the end of the journey. In the middle of the journey, while the velocity remains constant, the position changes at a constant rate. (b) Velocity of the train over time. The train’s velocity increases as it accelerates at the beginning of the journey. It remains the same in the middle of the journey (where there is no acceleration). It decreases as the train decelerates at the end of the journey. (c) The acceleration of the train over time. The train has positive acceleration as it speeds up at the beginning of the journey. It has no acceleration as it travels at constant velocity in the middle of the journey. Its acceleration is negative as it slows down at the end of the journey.

Calculating average velocity: the subway train

What is the average velocity of the train shown below, if it takes 5.00 min to make its trip?

The train moves toward the left, from an initial position of 5 point 25 kilometers to a final position of 3 point 75 kilometers.


Average velocity is displacement divided by time. It will be negative here, since the train moves to the left and has a negative displacement.


1. Identify the knowns. x f = 3 .75 km , x 0 = 5.25 km , Δ t = 5.00 min .

2. Determine displacement, Δ x . We found Δ x to be 1.5 km

3. Solve for average velocity.

v - = Δ x Δ t = 1.50 km 5.00 min size 12{ { bar {v}}= { {Δ { {x}} sup { ' }} over {Δt} } = { { - 1 "." "50 km"} over {5 "." "00 min"} } } {}

4. Convert units.

v - = Δ x Δ t = 1 . 50 km 5 . 00 min 60 min 1 h = 18 .0 km/h size 12{ { bar {v}}= { {Δx'} over {Δt} } = left ( { { - 1 "." "50"`"km"} over {5 "." "00"`"min"} } right ) left ( { {"60"`"min"} over {1`h} } right )= - "18" "." 0`"km/h"} {}


The negative velocity indicates motion to the left.

Sign and direction

Perhaps the most important thing to note about these examples is the signs of the answers. In our chosen coordinate system, plus means the quantity is to the right and minus means it is to the left. This is easy to imagine for displacement and velocity. But it is a little less obvious for acceleration. Most people interpret negative acceleration as the slowing of an object. In fact, a negative acceleration will increase a negative velocity. For example, the train moving to the left could speed up by an acceleration to the left. In this case, both v size 12{v} {} and a size 12{a} {} are negative. The plus and minus signs give the directions of the accelerations. If acceleration has the same sign as the velocity, the object is speeding up. If acceleration has the opposite sign as the velocity, the object is slowing down.

An airplane lands on a runway traveling east. Describe its acceleration.

If we take east to be positive, then the airplane has negative acceleration, as it is accelerating toward the west. It is also decelerating: its acceleration is opposite in direction to its velocity.

Section summary

  • Acceleration is the rate at which velocity changes. In symbols, average acceleration     a - size 12{ { bar {a}}} {} is
    a - = Δ v Δ t = v f v 0 t f t 0 . size 12{ { bar {a}}= { {Δv} over {Δt} } = { {v rSub { size 8{f} } - v rSub { size 8{0} } } over {t rSub { size 8{f} } - t rSub { size 8{0} } } } "." } {}
  • The SI unit for acceleration is m/s 2 size 12{"m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} .
  • Acceleration is a vector, and thus has a both a magnitude and direction.
  • Acceleration can be caused by either a change in the magnitude or the direction of the velocity.
  • Instantaneous acceleration a size 12{a} {} is the acceleration at a specific instant in time.
  • Deceleration is an acceleration with a direction opposite to that of the velocity.

Conceptual questions

Is it possible for speed to be constant while acceleration is not zero? Give an example of such a situation.

Is it possible for velocity to be constant while acceleration is not zero? Explain.

Give an example in which velocity is zero yet acceleration is not.

If a subway train is moving to the left (has a negative velocity) and then comes to a stop, what is the direction of its acceleration? Is the acceleration positive or negative?


A cheetah can accelerate from rest to a speed of 30.0 m/s in 7.00 s. What is its acceleration?

4 . 29 m/s 2 size 12{4 "." "29"`"m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}

A commuter backs her car out of her garage with an acceleration of 1 . 40 m/s 2 size 12{1 "." "40 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} . (a) How long does it take her to reach a speed of 2.00 m/s? (b) If she then brakes to a stop in 0.800 s, what is her acceleration?

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Kinematics. OpenStax CNX. Sep 11, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11878/1.5
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