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Temperature

Nearly all chemical reactions occur at a faster rate at higher temperatures. Recall that kinetic energy is the energy of matter in motion. The kinetic energy of subatomic particles increases in response to increases in thermal energy. The higher the temperature, the faster the particles move, and the more likely they are to come in contact and react.

Concentration and pressure

If just a few people are dancing at a club, they are unlikely to step on each other’s toes. But as more and more people get up to dance—especially if the music is fast—collisions are likely to occur. It is the same with chemical reactions: the more particles present within a given space, the more likely those particles are to bump into one another. This means that chemists can speed up chemical reactions not only by increasing the concentration    of particles—the number of particles in the space—but also by decreasing the volume of the space, which would correspondingly increase the pressure. If there were 100 dancers in that club, and the manager abruptly moved the party to a room half the size, the concentration of the dancers would double in the new space, and the likelihood of collisions would increase accordingly.

Enzymes and other catalysts

For two chemicals in nature to react with each other they first have to come into contact, and this occurs through random collisions. Because heat helps increase the kinetic energy of atoms, ions, and molecules, it promotes their collision. But in the body, extremely high heat—such as a very high fever—can damage body cells and be life-threatening. On the other hand, normal body temperature is not high enough to promote the chemical reactions that sustain life. That is where catalysts come in.

In chemistry, a catalyst    is a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any change. You can think of a catalyst as a chemical change agent. They help increase the rate and force at which atoms, ions, and molecules collide, thereby increasing the probability that their valence shell electrons will interact.

The most important catalysts in the human body are enzymes. An enzyme    is a catalyst composed of protein or ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which will be discussed later in this chapter. Like all catalysts, enzymes work by lowering the level of energy that needs to be invested in a chemical reaction. A chemical reaction’s activation energy    is the “threshold” level of energy needed to break the bonds in the reactants. Once those bonds are broken, new arrangements can form. Without an enzyme to act as a catalyst, a much larger investment of energy is needed to ignite a chemical reaction ( [link] ).

Enzymes

The left panel shows a graph of energy versus progress of reaction in the absence of enzymes. The right panel shows the graph in the presence of enzymes.
Enzymes decrease the activation energy required for a given chemical reaction to occur. (a) Without an enzyme, the energy input needed for a reaction to begin is high. (b) With the help of an enzyme, less energy is needed for a reaction to begin.

Enzymes are critical to the body’s healthy functioning. They assist, for example, with the breakdown of food and its conversion to energy. In fact, most of the chemical reactions in the body are facilitated by enzymes.

Chapter review

Chemical reactions, in which chemical bonds are broken and formed, require an initial investment of energy. Kinetic energy, the energy of matter in motion, fuels the collisions of atoms, ions, and molecules that are necessary if their old bonds are to break and new ones to form. All molecules store potential energy, which is released when their bonds are broken.

Four forms of energy essential to human functioning are: chemical energy, which is stored and released as chemical bonds are formed and broken; mechanical energy, which directly powers physical activity; radiant energy, emitted as waves such as in sunlight; and electrical energy, the power of moving electrons.

Chemical reactions begin with reactants and end with products. Synthesis reactions bond reactants together, a process that requires energy, whereas decomposition reactions break the bonds within a reactant and thereby release energy. In exchange reactions, bonds are both broken and formed, and energy is exchanged.

The rate at which chemical reactions occur is influenced by several properties of the reactants: temperature, concentration and pressure, and the presence or absence of a catalyst. An enzyme is a catalytic protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the human body.

Questions & Answers

write notes on the level of organizations of the body .citing examples for each level
Kaddijatou Reply
what is pathology
Ericka Reply
1 What is Nasogastric Tube 2 what is the difference between Nasogastric Aspiration and Nasogastric Feeling
ONOJA Reply
You measure a patient’s blood pressure at 130/85. Calculate the patient’s pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure. Determine whether each pressure is low, normal, or high.
ONOJA
normal blood pressure 120/80
Mohd
what are nocciceptors
Soul
hfjfjcjjjghkbv
Mohd
1 Its a flexible tube of plastic that pass through the nose, down to the eausophagus, and into the stomach, used to add or remove substances in the stomach.
Andile
2 Nasogastric aspiration is process of draining stomach contents via a tube and Nasogastric feeding is a process of giving food liquid through nasogastric tube
Andile
andile sir what is meant by clonoscopy
Soul
colonoscpopy is an exam use to detect abnormalities in the small intestine or the colon
Kwasi
What is the skin
Astony Reply
What is physiology?
Njaleny Reply
it is the study of the structure of the human body and its reationship
Hannah
Physiology is the function of a living organism.
Tammy
It is the study of human body and how it works.
Excellent
It is d entrance to the uterus
Umunna Reply
It is a small sensitive part of female sex organ which is found above d entrance to the vagina
Umunna
A small hole in d skin which contains d root of a hair
Umunna
A thin membrane which covers d entrance to the vagina in young girls
Umunna
Is a gland that produces milk in women and other female mammals
Umunna
A repeated process in which a woman's uterus gets ready for pregnancy which ends in a period if she does not get pregnant
Umunna
hello
Tamba
hi sir
Mir
so in summary describe the level of structural complexity within the body
Freda Reply
how can we describe briefly the levels of organization
Frimpong
what is blood clotting
Yahya Reply
Tiny bits in your blood called platelets get "turned on" by triggers released when a blood vessel is damaged. They stick to the walls in the area and each other, changing shape to form a plug that fills in the broken part to stop blood from leaking out. When activated, platelets also release chemic
Nilesh
what is a cell membrane?
lameck Reply
the cell membrane also called the plasma membrane regulates the transport materials entering and existing the cell.
Frimpong
what's gonna happen if your body doesn't produce enough white blood cells?
Jovanna
how is speech controlled by the nervous system?
Joseph Reply
The broca's area
Udebuana
what does the HCG
Njaleny
chemical level cellular level tissue level organ level organ system level organism
Chidera Reply
Yes Yes because they can perform more than one activity in the body
Chidera
the functional and structural unit of the body
Chidera
A group of 2 or more tissue that come together to perform a specific function
Chidera
A group of organs that work together to perform a specific function or meet the physiological needs of the body
Chidera
It's the highest level of organization
Chidera
2 or more cells coming together to perform a specific function
Chidera
Skeletal muscles can be tetanized but not cardiac muscle.Discuss
Okeke Reply
what is regional anatomy?
Grace Reply
study of structures that contribute to specific body region
charles
what is human anatomy?
Sam
It's the study of the interrelationships of body structures in a specific region
TM
is the study of the structure of the body and the relationship between body systems
Frimpong
it is the study of interrelationships of body structures in a specific region
christabel
this is the anatomy that deal with region's of body.
ONOJA
what is grey matter
OJO Reply
it is the major component of the central nervous system consisting of the neuronal cell bodies,neuropil,glial cells,capillaries and synapses
Frimpong
What is neuron cell
Dev Reply
neuron cell are the fundamental units of the brain and nervous system responsible for receiving sensory input from the external world, for sending motor commands to muscles and for transforming and relaying the electrical signals at every step in between
Serphine
What is the perfect defination of Life
Dev
What does a word muscles means ?
Abubakar
the perfect destination of life is to have life without flaws and defects.Alife where nothing can go wrong.
Frimpong

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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