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A copyright holder that uses a collective management organization for some, but not all, of her rights is engaged in partial collective management. Again, a copyright holder’s exclusive rights in a work means that he or she alone is able to decide whether to authorize or prohibit any use covered by that copyright. In principle, this gives a copyright holder flexibility in deciding, if he chooses to use collective management at all, exactly which functions a collective management organization will perform on his behalf. In practice, however, some collective management organizations require a participating copyright holder to assign all of his rights in a copyrighted work to the organization. In these situations, the author will not be able to license others to use the copyrighted work, except through the collective management organization.

Collective management organizations may also provide social welfare benefits to their members in addition to their royalty payments, such as medical insurance and retirement packages. They may also use part of the royalties they collect to fund drama festivals, music competitions, or the production or export of national works.

Compulsory collective management

Compulsory collective management systems ensure that the benefits of collective management are actually realized. If a collective management organization does not have the rights to a significant number of works within its particular field, then it no longer serves the socially valuable purpose of being able to license a large repertoire in a single agreement.

As a result, some countries choose to make collective management for certain types of works mandatory. This often happens where a use serves an important public purpose or where works of that type are used primarily for non-commercial purposes. In such situations, royalties are usually gathered either through a tax on copying equipment, or through a predetermined fee to be paid by users (such as companies, libraries, or universities) to the collecting society. Those royalties are then divided among the copyright holders according to how frequently each work is used. Collective management organizations -- and compulsory collective management organizations in particular -- are sometimes criticized for the complexity and lack of transparency of the rules they employ for collecting and distributing royalties.

The areas in which compulsory collective management is most common are:

  • neighboring rights for public performance, broadcasting, and cable transmission of sound recordings.
  • public lending rights
  • reprographic reproduction rights for literary works.

The second and third of these contexts are especially important for libraries. Public lending rights were discussed at length in  Module 4 . As was described there, public lending rights are currently recognized in very few countries outside Europe, and they pose dangers to the central mission of libraries in developing countries. Collective management of such rights, particularly if the license fees are paid by the government, reduce those dangers, but it is probably best if public lending rights are not extended to developing countries at all.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Copyright for librarians. OpenStax CNX. May 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10698/1.2
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