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We will start by taking a walk through an optimizing compiler to see one at work. We think it’s interesting, and if you can empathize with the compiler, you will be a better programmer; you will know what the compiler wants from you, and what it can do on its own.

Compilation process

Basic compiler processes

This figure is a flowchart showing movement from numerous lines of code to numerous boxes. From the beginning is a group of code, the first line showing A=B*C+5, and the second line D=B*C. From the bottom of this group of code is a line pointing to a box labeled Lexical Analysis. Below this is a line pointing to a line of code, A=B*C+5. The A is labeled variable, the * is labeled Operator, and the 5 is labeled constant. Below this line of code is an arrow pointing down at a box labeled Parse. Below this box is a grouping of code. The first line reads, T1:=B*C, the second line reads, A:=T1+5, and the third line reads D:=B*C. Pointing towards the upper-right is an arrow that points at a box labeled Optimization.

The compilation process is typically broken down into a number of identifiable steps, as shown in [link] . While not all compilers are implemented in exactly this way, it helps to understand the different functions a compiler must perform:

  1. A precompiler or preprocessor phase is where some simple textual manipulation of the source code is performed. The preprocessing step can be processing of include files and making simple string substitutions throughout the code.
  2. The lexical analysis phase is where the incoming source statements are decomposed into tokens such as variables, constants, comments, or language elements.
  3. The parsing phase is where the input is checked for syntax, and the compiler translates the incoming program into an intermediate language that is ready for optimization.
  4. One or more optimization passes are performed on the intermediate language.
  5. An object code generator translates the intermediate language into assembly code, taking into consideration the particular architectural details of the processor in question.

As compilers become more and more sophisticated in order to wring the last bit of performance from the processor, some of these steps (especially the optimization and code-generation steps) become more and more blurred. In this chapter, we focus on the traditional optimizing compiler, and in later chapters we will look more closely at how modern compilers do more sophisticated optimizations.

Intermediate language representation

Because we are most interested in the optimization of our program, we start our discussion at the output of the parse phase of the compiler. The parse phase output is in the form of an an intermediate language (IL) that is somewhere between a high-level language and assembly language. The intermediate language expresses the same calculations that were in the original program, in a form the compiler can manipulate more easily. Furthermore, instructions that aren’t present in the source, such as address expressions for array references, become visible along with the rest of the program, making them subject to optimizations too.

How would an intermediate language look? In terms of complexity, it’s similar to assembly code but not so simple that the definitions By “definitions,” we mean the assignment of values: not declarations. and uses of variables are lost. We’ll need definition and use information to analyze the flow of data through the program. Typically, calculations are expressed as a stream of quadruples — statements with exactly one operator, (up to) two operands, and a result. More generally, code can be cast as n -tuples. It depends on the level of the intermediate language. Presuming that anything in the original source program can be recast in terms of quadruples, we have a usable intermediate language. To give you an idea of how this works, We’re going to rewrite the statement below as a series of four quadruples:

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, High performance computing. OpenStax CNX. Aug 25, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11136/1.5
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