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Photo A shows a bright red frog sitting on a leaf. Photo B shows a skunk.
(a) The strawberry poison dart frog ( Oophaga pumilio ) uses aposematic coloration to warn predators that it is toxic, while the (b) striped skunk ( Mephitis mephitis ) uses aposematic coloration to warn predators of the unpleasant odor it produces. (credit a: modification of work by Jay Iwasaki; credit b: modification of work by Dan Dzurisin)

While some predators learn to avoid eating certain potential prey because of their coloration, other species have evolved mechanisms to mimic this coloration to avoid being eaten, even though they themselves may not be unpleasant to eat or contain toxic chemicals. In Batesian mimicry    , a harmless species imitates the warning coloration of a harmful one. Assuming they share the same predators, this coloration then protects the harmless ones, even though they do not have the same level of physical or chemical defenses against predation as the organism they mimic. Many insect species mimic the coloration of wasps or bees, which are stinging, venomous insects, thereby discouraging predation ( [link] ).

Photos A and B show virtually identical looking insects. Photos A and B show virtually identical looking insects.
Batesian mimicry occurs when a harmless species mimics the coloration of a harmful species, as is seen with the (a) bumblebee and (b) bee-like robber fly. (credit a, b: modification of work by Cory Zanker)

In Müllerian mimicry    , multiple species share the same warning coloration, but all of them actually have defenses. [link] shows a variety of foul-tasting butterflies with similar coloration. In Emsleyan/Mertensian mimicry    , a deadly prey mimics a less dangerous one, such as the venomous coral snake mimicking the non-venomous milk snake. This type of mimicry is extremely rare and more difficult to understand than the previous two types. For this type of mimicry to work, it is essential that eating the milk snake has unpleasant but not fatal consequences. Then, these predators learn not to eat snakes with this coloration, protecting the coral snake as well. If the snake were fatal to the predator, there would be no opportunity for the predator to learn not to eat it, and the benefit for the less toxic species would disappear.

Photos show four pairs of butterflies that are virtually identical to one another in color and banding pattern.
Several unpleasant-tasting Heliconius butterfly species share a similar color pattern with better-tasting varieties, an example of Müllerian mimicry. (credit: Joron M, Papa R, Beltrán M, Chamberlain N, Mavárez J, et al.)

Go to this website to view stunning examples of mimicry.

Competitive exclusion principle

Resources are often limited within a habitat and multiple species may compete to obtain them. All species have an ecological niche in the ecosystem, which describes how they acquire the resources they need and how they interact with other species in the community. The competitive exclusion principle    states that two species cannot occupy the same niche in a habitat. In other words, different species cannot coexist in a community if they are competing for all the same resources. An example of this principle is shown in [link] , with two protozoan species, Paramecium aurelia and Paramecium caudatum . When grown individually in the laboratory, they both thrive. But when they are placed together in the same test tube (habitat), P. aurelia outcompetes P. caudatum for food, leading to the latter’s eventual extinction.

Questions & Answers

who is the father of biology
Sean Reply
what are prokaryotic cells
Kusubira Reply
having cell that lack membrane - bound nuclei.
Lubera
Please each person should suggest ur answers
Franklina Reply
differentiate between autelogical and synecology
Christiana Reply
differentiate between autelogical and synecology
Christiana Reply
answer please
Edmond
Autecology is the study of individual organism or individual species. It is also known as population ecology. Synecology is the study of group of organisms of different species which are associated together as a unit in form of a community.
Daniel
Autecology is the study of the environment in relation to only one species in contrast while synecology is the study of the environment affecting groups of species coexisting in an area.
Franklina
Describe the factors affecting homotasis
Grace Reply
Fluids and electrolytes Energy and nutrition Immune response mediators
Franklina
prove starch in a mango leaf
Ruth Reply
prove starch in a leaf
Ruth
draw and name the plant cell
Nalongo
wat is classification
Nalongo
levels of classification
Nalongo
classification of what
Ezenwa
Nidhipal
Nidhi
Iodine solution is used to test leaves for the presence of starch.
Franklina
Identify the caste of termites or Honey bees
Mensah Reply
Soldier Winged reproductive Worker King and queen
Franklina
what is biology
Jackson Reply
biology is a study of living organism
Brilliant
what is the myelin sheath?
Myelin sheath is an insulting layer that forms around nerves, including those in the brain and spinal cord.
Franklina
description on how an enzyme such as pepsin breaks down a substrate
linister Reply
The specific reaction catalyzed by pepsin is the acid hydrolysis of the peptide bond. This reaction will break down protein into smaller units to enable the digestive process
Franklina
what is biology
Kanzy Reply
study of life
Tufail
the study of life..meaning studying all aspects of life in humans,animals and everything inside the global
Nalukui
study of life
Memory
is the branch of science which deal with the study of living and non living things
David
Is the study of living organisms or living things
Franklina
draw the taxonomic hierarchy of classification
KC Reply
Kingdom Class Order Family Genus Species
Franklina
explain the following bush burning, deforestation, over grazing
Thomas Reply
what is biodiversity
Tracy
No idea
nana
Please what are alleles
nana
Deforestation: this is the cutting down of trees without planting new ones
Brilliant
over grazing is the continuously planting of crops in one particular land.
Friday
what is afforestation
Friday
Bush burning is the removal of the natural vegetation cover, that protects the soil surface through the use of fire. Deforestation is the actor process of establishing a forest especially on land not previously forested.
Franklina
Over grazing is the practice of grazing toi many livestock for too long a period on a land unable to recover its vegetation.
Franklina
what is physiology
Joseph Reply
the study of physical things
Nalukui
dealing with those things which you can see by your neck eyes
Odwa
Further explanation please
nana
the study of things tt interact with time,energy
David
Is the scientific study of chemistry and physics of the structure of the body
Franklina

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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