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High energy beam electrons are elastic scattered back from the surface. This type of signal gives information about chemical composition of the surface because the energy of backscattered electrons depends on the weight of atoms within the interaction layer. Also this type of electrons can form secondary electrons and escape from the surface or travel father into the sample than the secondary. The SEM image formed is the result of the intensity of the secondary electron emission from the sample at each x,y data point during the scanning of the surface.

Atomic force microscopy

AFM is a very popular tool to study surface dissolution. AFM set up consists of scanning a sharp tip on the end of a flexible cantilever which moves across a sample surface. The tips typically have an end radius of 2 to 20 nm, depending on tip type. When the tip touch the surface the forces of these interactions leads to deflection of a cantilever. The interaction between tip and sample surface involve mechanical contact forces, van der Waals forces, capillary forces, chemical bonding, electrostatic forces, magnetic forces etc. The deflection of a cantilever is usually measured by reflecting a laser beam off the back of the cantilever into a split photodiode detector. A schematic drawing of AFM can be seen in [link] . The two most commonly used modes of operation are contact mode AFM and tapping mode AFM, which are conducted in air or liquid environments.

Schematic drawing of an AFM apparatus.

Working under the contact mode AFM scans the sample while monitoring the change in cantilever deflection with the split photodiode detector. Loop maintains a constant cantilever reflection by vertically moving the scanner to get a constant signal. The distance which the scanner goes by moving vertically at each x,y data point is stored by the computer to form the topographic image of the sample surface. Working under the tapping mode AFM oscillates the cantilever at its resonance frequency (typically~300 kHz) and lightly “taps” the tip on the surface during scanning. The electrostatic forces increase when tip gets close to the sample surface, therefore the amplitude of the oscillation decreases. The laser deflection method is used to detect the amplitude of cantilever oscillation. Similar to the contact mode, feedback loop maintains a constant oscillation amplitude by moving the scanner vertically at every x,y data point. Recording this movement forms the topographical image. The advantage of tapping mode over contact mode is that it eliminates the lateral, shear forces present in contact mode. This enables tapping mode to image soft, fragile, and adhesive surfaces without damaging them while work under contact mode allows the damage to occur.

Comparison of techniques

All techniques described above are widely used in studying of surface nano- and micromorphology. However, each method has its own limitations and the proper choice of analytical technique depends on features of analyzed surface and primary goals of research.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Nanomaterials and nanotechnology. OpenStax CNX. May 07, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10700/1.13
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