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Student newStudent = { "C0681008","Cao Anh Huy", 8.50,{1, 2, 1985} };

Notice how we include the initialization values in curly brackets, just like when we initialize an array. Furthermore, we include the values for any nested structure type (in this case the dateOfBirth member is a nested structure), in a further set of curly brackets.

Copying structure variables

One of the most convenient features of structures is that we can copy them in a single assignment operation. This is unlike an array, which must be copied item-by-item. The name of a structure variable when it appears on its own represents the entire structure. If a structure contains an array as a member, that array is copied if the entire structure is copied.

Student newStudent1, newStudent2; // Get the values for newStudent2... // Copy newStudent2's value to newStudent1newStudent1 = newStudent2;

Comparing values of structures

We cannot compare structures in a single operation. If we wish to compare the values of two structure variables, we need to compare each of their members.

Arrays of structures

Just as we can have an array of basic data types, we can also have an array of structures. Suppose that we created an array of Student structures as follows. We could then copy newStudent into each position in the array.

Student students[100];Student newStudent; int i;for (i=0; i<100; i++) {// Get the values for newStudent ...// Copy into the next position in the array students[i]= newStudent; }

Operations on structures

Passing structures to and from functions

Structures can be passed to functions just like any other data type. Functions can also return structures, just as they can return any basic type. Structures can be also be passed to functions by reference.

Just like passing variable of a basic data type, when we pass a structure as an argument to a function, a copy is made of the entire structure. Structures are passed by value. We can easily take the code that output a student and put it into a function as follows.

void outputStudent(Student stu) {printf("Student Details\n"); printf("Identification: %s\n", stu.studentID);printf("Name: %s\n", stu.name); printf("Mark: %.2f\n, stu.markCS);printf("Date of Birth: %i/%i/%i\n", stu.dateOfBirth.day,stu.dateOfBirth.month, stu.dateOfBirth.year); }

If we had an array of 100 students and wanted to output them this would be straightforward:

Student students[100];int i; ...for (i=0; i<100; i++) { outputStudent(students[i]); }

We could similarly place the code to input a student into a function, but now we have a problem. The function can return a structure of type Student as follows.

Student inputStudent() {Student tempStudent; printf("Enter Student identification: ");scanf("%s",&tempStudent.studentID); printf("Enter Student name: ");fflush(stdin);gets(tempStudent.name); printf("Enter final mark: ");scanf("%f",&tempStudent.markCS); printf("Enter birth date (dd/mm/yyyy):");scanf("%i/%i/%i",&tempStudent.dateOfBirth.day,&tempStudent.dateOfBirth.month,&tempStudent.dateOfBirth.year );return tempStudent; }

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to computer science. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10776/1.1
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