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Values and action

The cultural model is a valuable addition to our understanding of organizations. The recognition that school andcollege development needs to be preceded by attitudinal change is salutary, and consistent with the maxim that teachers must feel“ownership”of change if it is to be implemented effectively.“Since organization ultimately resides in the heads of the people involved, effective organizational change always implies culturalchange”(Morgan, 1997, p. 150).

Cultural models also provide a focus for organizational action, a dimension that is largely absent from thesubjective perspective. Leaders may adopt a moral approach and focus on influencing values so that they become closer to, if notidentical with, their own beliefs. In this way, they hope to achieve widespread support for or“ownership”of new policies. By working through this informal domain, rather than imposing changethrough positional authority or political processes, heads and principals are more likely to gain support for innovation. Anappreciation of organizational culture is an important element in the leadership and management of schools and colleges.

Conclusion

Comparing the management models

The six management models discussed in this chapter represent different ways of looking at educationalinstitutions. Each screen offers valuable insights into the nature of management in education but none provides a complete picture.The six approaches are all valid analyses but their relevance varies according to the context. Each event, situation or problemmay be understood by using one or more of these models but no organization can be explained by using only a single approach.There is no single perspective capable of presenting a total framework for our understanding of educational institutions.“The search for an all-encompassing model is simplistic, for no onemodel can delineate the intricacies of decision processes in complex organizations such as universities and colleges”(Baldridge et al, 1978, p. 28).

The formal models dominated the early stages of theory development in educational management. Formal structure,rational decision-making and“top-down”leadership were regarded as the central concepts of effective management and attention wasgiven to refining these processes to increase efficiency. Since the 1970s, however, there has been a gradual realization that formalmodels are“at best partial and at worst grossly deficient”(Chapman, 1993, p. 215).

The other five models featured in this volume all developed in response to the perceived weaknesses of what wasthen regarded as“conventional theory.”They have demonstrated the limitations of the formal models and put in place alternativeconceptualizations of school management. While these more recent models are all valid, they are just as partial as the dominantperspective their advocates seek to replace. There is more theory and, by exploring different dimensions of management, its totalexplanatory power is greater than that provided by any single model.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
Difference between extinct and extici spicies
Amanpreet Reply
While the American heart association suggests that meditation might be used in conjunction with more traditional treatments as a way to manage hypertension
Beverly Reply
Researchers demonstrated that the hippocampus functions in memory processing by creating lesions in the hippocampi of rats, which resulted in ________.
Mapo Reply
The formulation of new memories is sometimes called ________, and the process of bringing up old memories is called ________.
Mapo Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Organizational change in the field of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10402/1.2
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