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The phylogenetic tree of primates shows the varying degrees of relatedness. The three main sub groups are the Hominidae, Platyrrhines, and Catarrhines

Other alarm call systems convey the degree of risk (Fischer et al, 2001). A system based on urgency has evolved in primates with only one escape strategy. These alarm calls differ in their frequency and duration, but don’t refer to any specific threat (Fischer et al, 2001). The South African chacma baboon has evolved a graded urgency system that allows it to respond with a quick escape from a high-risk situation, or perhaps ignore the warning when the risk is very small (Fischer et al, 2001).

Primate species that use specific alarm calls have also evolved calls that communicate directly with the predator (Zuberbühler 1999). These systems appear in species that face attack from predators that rely on surprise tactics. Alarm calls for ambushing predators are much louder and more conspicuous than those given in response to other types of predators, as if the primate is letting the predator know it’s been spotted and is now out of luck (Zuberbühler 1999).

Communication among primates

Comparison of Primate Communication Systems
Primate Species Type of call Sounds like Suggested Meaning Observable Response
Diana Monkeys ( Cercopithecus Diana ) clear call symmetric tonal call Signals the area is free of threats The monkeys responded with their own clear calls and continued their daily activities.
(Boxes A2-E4: Zuberbühler et al, 1997; Zuberbühler 2000) crowned-hawk eagle alarm call loud, shrill A crowned-hawk eagle has been spotted The monkeys descend from the treetops.
leopard alarm call loud, shrill, with many changes in frequency A leopard has been spotted The monkeys run into the treetops.
White-faced Capuchin ( Cebus capucinus ) aerial alarm call harsh, given in single bursts Signals that an aerial predator has been spotted The monkeys scanned the sky then retreated down the tree
(Boxes A5-E6: Digweed et al, 2005) alerting call bark-like, given in long bouts A more general signal for terrestrial predators; sometimes may also draw attention to non-predators that are causing a disturbance (better safe than sorry) The monkeys scanned the sky and then usually ran into the treetops; occasionally they would mob the predator
Chacma Baboons ( Papio cynocephalus ursinus ) contact bark tonal, clear bark These are the two extremes of the range of barks Chacma baboons possess. The contact barks signify there is no risk, while the alarm barks indicate a very threatening situation. There are intermediate barks that allow the baboons to express varying degrees of risk. The baboons ignore contact barks but investigate intermediate ones
(Boxes A7-E8: Fischer et al, 2001) alarm bark harsh, shrill bark Signify a high degree of risk The baboons fled to the trees
Vervet Monkeys ( Cercopithecus aethiops ) leopard alarm short tonal call A leopard has been spotted The monkeys ran up into the treetops
(Boxes A9-11E: Seyfarth et al, 1980; Seyfarth et al, 1986) eagle alarm low-pitched staccato grunts An eagle, or other aerial predator, has been spotted The monkeys scanned the sky and ran into dense brush
snake alarm high-pitched chutters A snake has been spotted The monkeys examined the ground around them
Moustached and Saddleback Tamarins ( Saguinus mystax and Saguinus fuscicollis ) aerial alarm call high frequency, staccato An aerial predator has been spotted The tamarins scanned the sky for the potential danger
(Boxes A12-E13: Kirchhof et al., 2006; Fichtel 2007) terrestrial alarm call low frequent, more drawn out A terrestrial predator has been spotted; this call is also sometimes used as an all purpose alert The tamarins scanned the ground for the potential danger and retreated into the treetops

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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