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A fee payment scheme similar to the 1977 Agreement still exists in which “the exploitations of expressions of folklore and that of works or productions that have fallen into the public domain . . . shall be subject to the user entering into an undertaking to pay the national collective rights administration body a relevant royalty” (1999 Agreement, Annex VII, Chapter 5, Article 59, para. 1). The fees will be donated, in part, to “welfare and cultural purposes” (1999 Agreement, Annex VII, Chapter 5, Article 59, para. 3).

Some observers contend that the 1999 Agreement completely removed folklore from copyright law and instead provided it with  sui generis  protection whereby folklore is regulated and owned by the government. However, others see that folklore can still be protected as a form of copyright as stated in Article 5 of Annex VII. This ambiguity creates confusion as to who owns folklore under the terms of the Agreement. This confusion is even greater than in the 1977 Agreement because there are no longer specific references to the States having an indefeasible right with respect to folklore and cultural heritage.

Common market of the south (mercosur)

MERCOSUR is a regional trade agreement created in 1991 by the Treaty of Asuncion between  Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay,  and  Uruguay . In 1995, the regional organization adopted an important protocol to protect indigenous heritage: the Protocol for the Harmonization of Intellectual Property Norms in MERCOSUR with respect to Trademarks and Indications of Source or Denominations of Origin. In particular, Article 19 of the Protocol requires Party States to “reciprocally protect their indications of source and dominations of origin.” “Denomination of origin” is defined broadly as “the geographical name of a country, city, region or locality within a Party State's territory, which designates products or services whose qualities or characteristics are exclusively or essentially caused by the geographical environment, including natural and human factors.” Such a broad definition of geographic origin -- which notably includes “human factors” -- encompasses traditional cultural expressions. Similarly, the Protocol attempts to protect traditional knowledge through its definition of “indications of source” by basing the defined term on the location that is “known as a center place for extraction, production or manufacture of a certain product or for the performance of a certain service.” In 1996, MERCOSUR affirmed the importance of cultural rights by creating the Protocol on the Cultural Integration of MERCOSUR. Although traditional knowledge is not specifically mentioned, this protocol focuses on the creation of cultural policies that display historical traditions, common values, and cultural diversity of member countries.

Andean community

The Andean Community (originally known as the Andean Pact) was created in 1969 with the signing of the Cartagena Agreement. The overall objective of the Community is to enable the member countries to work jointly to “improve their people’s standard of living through integration and economic and social cooperation.” The current member states are  Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador,  and  Peru; Mexico  and  Panama  are observer countries. In 2000, the Community enacted  Decision 486 , the purpose of which was to improve intellectual property protection and provide “more expeditious and transparent procedures for trademark registration and patent issues.” Although this Decision focuses on biological resources, it also provides for protection of traditional knowledge in the General Provisions. Article 3 states that member countries must “ensure that the protection granted to intellectual property elements shall be accorded while safeguarding and respecting their biological and genetic heritage, together with the traditional knowledge of their indigenous, African American, or local communities. As a result, the granting of patents on inventions that have been developed on the basis of material obtained from that heritage or that knowledge shall be subordinated to the acquisition of that material in accordance with international, Andean Community, and national law. The Member Countries recognize the right and the authority of indigenous, African American, and local communities in respect of their collective knowledge.”

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Copyright for librarians. OpenStax CNX. Jun 15, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11329/1.2
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