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Based on the software engineer’s intuition and experience

Ad hoc testing

Perhaps the most widely practiced technique remains ad hoc testing: tests are derived relying on the software engineer’s skill, intuition, and experience with similar programs. Ad hoc testing might be useful for identifying special tests, those not easily captured by formalized techniques.

Exploratory testing

Exploratory testing is defined as simultaneous learning, test design, and test execution; that is, the tests are not defined in advance in an established test plan, but are dynamically designed, executed, and modified. The effectiveness of exploratory testing relies on the software engineer’s knowledge, which can be derived from various sources: observed product behavior during testing, familiarity with the application, the platform, the failure process, the type of possible faults and failures, the risk associated with a particular product, and so on.

Specification-based techniques

Equivalence partitioning

The input domain is subdivided into a collection of subsets, or equivalent classes, which are deemed equivalent according to a specified relation, and a representative set of tests (sometimes only one) is taken from each class.

Boundary-value analysis

Test cases are chosen on and near the boundaries of the input domain of variables, with the underlying rationale that many faults tend to concentrate near the extreme values of inputs. An extension of this technique is robustness testing, wherein test cases are also chosen outside the input domain of variables, to test program robustness to unexpected or erroneous inputs.

Decision table

Decision tables represent logical relationships between conditions (roughly, inputs) and actions (roughly, outputs). Test cases are systematically derived by considering every possible combination of conditions and actions. A related technique is cause-effect graphing.

Finite-state machine-based

By modeling a program as a finite state machine, tests can be selected in order to cover states and transitions on it.

Testing from formal specifications

Giving the specifications in a formal language allows for automatic derivation of functional test cases, and, at the same time, provides a reference output, an oracle, for checking test results. Methods exist for deriving test cases from model-based or algebraic specifications.

Random testing

Tests are generated purely at random, not to be confused with statistical testing from the operational profile. This form of testing falls under the heading of the specification-based entry, since at least the input domain must be known, to be able to pick random points within it.

Code-based techniques

Control-flow-based criteria

Control-flow-based coverage criteria is aimed at covering all the statements or blocks of statements in a program, or specified combinations of them. Several coverage criteria have been proposed, like condition/decision coverage. The strongest of the control-flow-based criteria is path testing, which aims to execute all entry-to-exit control flow paths in the flowgraph. Since path testing is generally not feasible because of loops, other less stringent criteria tend to be used in practice, such as statement testing, branch testing, and condition/decision testing. The adequacy of such tests is measured in percentages; for example, when all branches have been executed at least once by the tests, 100% branch coverage is said to have been achieved.

Questions & Answers

give me coding of these projects
Aman Reply
feasibility study&fact gathering techniques
Nachi Reply
write about software engineering
Mandala Reply
8.10.0.
BARBU
define iterative model. example of iterative model. advantages and disadvantages of iterative model. when to use iterative model
Okello Reply
i try out in netbeans this code:public class Profile { private Profile(int w) { // line 1 System.out.println(w); } public final Profile() { // line 5 System.out.println(10); } public static void main(String args[]) { Profile obj = new Profile(50); } } It is the question 5, and the answer is 50
Jacqueline Reply
how to join conversation
Bablu
i need help....Discuss the factors that influence the choice of the software development methodology to use when implementing software projects?(20)
tatenda Reply
The success rate of software development projects can be increased by using a methodology that is adequate for the specific characteristics of those projects.  then the focus on RAD,XP,RUP.
Hemant
hemant hie...it is a presentation i am working on...can you help me wth the introduction....please a powerful one hahahahha
tatenda
yes
Hemant
Define and show all Dipthongs and vowels used in english phonetics
Okendro Reply
what is the software engineering
Axmed Reply
please
Jennifer
hhahhaha
martin
software engineering is a organized process of activities for development a use full software . it may consist of : 1:spcecification 2:design 3: implementation 4: evolution:
hamayun
Please how can I create an application?
Eric Reply
please how can I create an application
Nchor
How do we create a software
Florence Reply
give a more direct question
Louis Reply
what is semantics?
amjad
what r the computer codes
Kawuba Reply
machine code, source code , object code, and byte code etc
Hemant
what is software
Manobendra Reply
a collection of program executable by code is called software
Hemant
how can I create a software
Mary Reply
use in any model . then after you create any software
Hemant
what is capability maturity model integration
Muctarr
what is maturity level
Muctarr
maturity level is organization's process improvement achievement in multiple process areas
Hemant
how to trubulshoot is configuration ?
priya Reply
hello
Julius
hello
abeer
hello
Sahil
hello
Natnael
Hello
Eric
Guy's put your answer only
Natnael
click start then click run then type msconfig then ok
Natnael

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Source:  OpenStax, Software engineering. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10790/1.1
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