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The fourth generation - 1971-present: microprocessors

The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip. What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand. The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located all the components of the computer - from the central processing unit and memory to input/output controls - on a single chip.

In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user, and in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh. Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of desktop computers and into many areas of life as more and more everyday products began to use microprocessors.

As these small computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form networks, which eventually led to the development of the Internet. Fourth generation computers also saw the development of GUI (Graphic User Interface), the mouse and handheld devices.

The fifth generation - present and beyond: artificial intelligence

Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today. The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality. Quantum computation and molecular and nanotechnology will radically change the face of computers in years to come. The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization.

Classification of computers

Computers are available in different shapes, sizes and weights, due to these different shapes and sizes they perform different sorts of jobs from one another.

  • Mainframe and Super Computers

The biggest in size, the most expensive in price than any other is classified and known as super computer. It can process trillions of instructions in seconds. Governments specially use this type of computer for their different calculations and heavy jobs. This kind of computer is also helpful for forecasting weather reports worldwide.

Another giant in computers after the super computer is Mainframe, which can also process millions of instruction per second and capable of accessing billions of data. This computer is commonly used in big hospitals, airline reservations companies, and many other huge companies prefer mainframe because of its capability of retrieving data on a huge basis. This is normally too expensive and out of reach from a salary-based person who wants a computer for his home.

  • Minicomputers

This computer offers less than mainframe in work and performance. These are the computers, which are mostly preferred by the small type of business personals, colleges, and so on.

  • Microcomputers

These computers are lesser in cost than the computers given above and also, small in size; They can store a big amount of data and have a memory to meet the assignments of students and other necessary tasks of business people. There are many types of microcomputers: desktop, workstation, laptop, PDA , etc.

Computer science and relevant sciences

In 1957 the German computer scientist Karl Steinbuch coined the word informatik by publishing a paper called Informatik: Automatische Informationsverarbeitung (i.e. "Informatics: automatic information processing"). The French term informatique was coined in 1962 by Philippe Dreyfus together with various translations—informatics (English), informatica (Italian, Spanish, Portuguese), informatika (Russian) referring to the application of computers to store and process information.

The term was coined as a combination of "information" and "automation", to describe the science of automatic information processing.

Informatics is more oriented towards mathematics than computer science.

Computer science

Computer Science is the study of computers, including both hardware and software design. Computer science is composed of many broad disciplines, for instance, artificial intelligence and software engineering.

Information technology

Includes all matters concerned with the furtherance of computer science and technology and with the design, development, installation, and implementation of information systems and applications

Information and communication technology

ICT (information and communications technology - or technologies) is an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as videoconferencing and distance learning.

Questions & Answers

price elasticity of demand is the degree of responsiveness of a quantity demanded to the change in price of the commodity in question.
Gladys Reply
what is the importance of learning economics?
Thelma Reply
it helps to make the correct choice
Gladys
it helps firm to produce products that will bring more profit
Gladys
the difference between needs and wants
londiwe Reply
needs are things that we basically can't live without wants are just luxury things
Thelma
needs are things without them we can't live but want are things without we can live
KP
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KP
it's a process in which we give or receiving methodical instructions
Thelma
what is mixed economy
Amex
what is a deadweight loss? how monopoly creates a deadweight loss?
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how to understand basics of economics
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what is demand schedle
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When you make a Scedule of the demand you made
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What is macroeconomics
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It's one of the two branches of Economics that deal with the aggregate economy.
Mayen
it's about inflation, occupation, gdp and so on
alberto
What is differences between Microeconomics and Macroeconomic?
Bethrand
microeconomics focuses on the action of individual agents in the economy such as businesses, workers and household. while macroeconomics looks at the economy as a whole. it focuses on broad issues in the economy such as government deficit, economy growth, levels of exports and imports, and
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inflationary increase in prices
Thelma
a price floor of 24 imposed
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monopolistic competition
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Richard Reply
Fixed Costs per week Variable Costs per bear Rent & Rates of Factory Hire & machines Heating & Lighting Repayment of Bank Loan K100.00 K45.00 K5.00 K50.00 Materials Foam Wages K6.00 K1.00 K1.00 Total K200.00 K8.00
Richard
one of the scarce resources that constrain our behaviour is time. each of us has only 24 hours in a day. how do you go about allocating your time in a given day among completing alternatives? once you choose a most important use of time. why do you not spend all your time to it. use the notion of op
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Economics- The study of how people use their limited resources to tey and satisfy unlimited wants.
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Difference between extinct and extici spicies
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in a comparison of the stages of meiosis to the stage of mitosis, which stages are unique to meiosis and which stages have the same event in botg meiosis and mitosis
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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to computer science. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10776/1.1
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