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History of computer networks

Computer network

Computer network is composed of multiple connected computers that communicate over a wired or wireless medium to share data and other resources.

Network data protocols are used to communicate on the network between computers.

The size and scalability of any computer network are determined both by the physical medium of communication and by the software controlling the communication (i.e., the protocols).

The field of computer networking and today's Internet trace their beginnings back to the early 1960s, a time at which the telephone network was the world's dominant communication network. The global Internet's origin was the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) of the U.S. Department of Defense in 1969 Nowadays, computer networks are developed rapidly

Classification of computer networks

Networks can be categorized in several different ways, for example,

  • By network layer
  • By scale
  • By connection method
  • By functional relationship
  • By network topology
  • By protocol

Classification by scale

A Local Area Network (LAN) is a group of computers and associated devices that share a common communications line and typically share the resources of a single processor or server within a small geographic area

A Wide Area Network (WAN) is a computer network that spans a relatively large geographical area (diameter of about 200 km)

GAN (Global Area Network) A network spanning a between geographically distinct cities

Classification by functional relationship

Server based (client/server): Computers set up to be primary providers of services such as file service or mail service.

The computers providing the service are called servers

The computers that request and use the service are called client computers.

Peer-to-peer

Various computers on the network can act both as clients and servers.

Example Many Microsoft Windows based computers allow file and print sharing.

Many networks are combination peer-to-peer and server based networks.

Major components of a computer network

A computer network possibly includes :

  • Computers: critical elements of any computer network. They can be considered nodes
  • A network card, NIC (network interface card) is a piece of computer hardware designed to allow computers to communicate over a computer network.
  • Network media (sometimes referred to as networked media) refers to media mainly used in computer networks : cable, telephone line or wireless.
  • Network connection equipments : HUB, SWITCH, ROUTER,etc.
  • Network Operating System (NOS) is an operating system that includes special functions for connecting computers and devices into a local-area network (LAN) or Inter-networking. Some popular NOSs for DOS and Windows systems include Novell NetWare, Windows NT and 2000, Sun Solaris and IBM OS/2.
  • Network software.
  • Network services, for example email.

Network topology

Network topology is the arrangement or mapping of the elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a network, especially the physical (real) and logical (virtual) interconnections between nodes .

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to computer science. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10776/1.1
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